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Internet Papers

Internet Papers

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Published by Faqieh FatOnix

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Published by: Faqieh FatOnix on Dec 10, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use thestandard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a
network of networks
that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, andgovernment networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast rangeof information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of theWorld Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, andtelevision are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such asVoice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and webfeeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions throughinstant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business andfinancial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned bythe United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to buildrobust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of newnetworking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization andincorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2011, more than 2.1 billion people – nearly a third of Earth's population – use the services of the Internet.
The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementationor policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Onlythe overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the InternetProtocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Thetechnical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is anactivity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with bycontributing technical expertise.
is a short form of the technical term internetwork,
the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. The Internet is alsooften referred to as
the Net 
.The term
the Interne
, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks,has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the mediaand popular culture a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or commonnoun and thus write it as "the internet", without capitalization. Some guides specify thatthe word should be capitalized as a noun but not capitalized as an adjective.
The terms
World Wide Web
are often used in everyday speech withoutmuch distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and thesame. The hardware and software infrastructure of the Internet establishes a global datacommunications system between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the servicescommunicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.
Professor Leonard Kleinrock with the first ARPANET Interface MessageProcessors at UCLAResearch into packet switching started in the early 1960s and packet switchednetworks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK,
Merit Network,
Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s usinga variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocolsfor internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into anetwork of networks.The first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Leonard Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRIInternational (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969.
The third site onthe ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah GraphicsDepartment. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connectedto the young ARPANET by the end of 1971.
These early years were documented inthe 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing.Early international collaborations on ARPANET were sparse. For various politicalreasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks.
 Notable exceptions were the
 Norwegian Seismic Array
(NORSAR) in 1972, followed in1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter Kirstein'sresearch group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, LondonUniversity and later at University College London.
 In 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized and the concept of aworld-wide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks called the Internet wasintroduced. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National ScienceFoundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In December 1974,
 RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program
, by VintonCerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term
, as a shorthand for 

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