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Training Needs Assesment Manual

Training Needs Assesment Manual



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Published by witoyo

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Published by: witoyo on Oct 25, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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"We should not push our client to buy our modul, but we should give them the best suitable training which not only caused by money need"
- Bowo Witoyo
4Summary 10
10Step 1: Management sanction and preparation for training needs assessment 11Step 2: Scanning the work environment 13A. Studying records and reports15B. Direct observation18C. Asking questions 21Summary 26Step 3: Focusing on discrepancies and needs 27A. Information management28B. Information analysis30C. Specifying training needs 31Summary 33Step 4: Planning for implementation 33A. Preparing strategies34B. Setting priorities 36Summary 39Step 5: Reporting to management 39Summary 43
43Annex A. Terms of reference (TOR) document 44Annex B. Guide for conducting a personal interview 45Annex C. Guide for preparing a survey questionnaire 47Annex D. Guide for conducting a Q sort survey 49Annex E. Guide for using the Nominal Group Technique 51Annex F. Guide for using the Crawford slip technique 53Annex G. Guide for selecting training resources 54
The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) has long promoted innovative approaches to trainingsuitable for the needs of operational agencies. It has insisted that, to be effective, training must be accompanied by thecareful and continuous assessment of human performance throughout an organization. Systematic assessments showwhat performance problems exist, which can be remedied by training, and which must be resolved in some other way.Without them, training will never be taken seriously by management as crucial to the attainment of organizationalpurposes.In recent years, governments and bilateral and multilateral agencies have become aware of the need for well-targeted andappropriate training. The field of human settlements is no exception. Governments and local authorities now realize theimportance of properly managing their physical assets and financial resources. As settlements grow, policies andprocedures must keep pace with rising demands for infrastructure and services. However, manpower policies based onformal education are no longer adequate, and something more is needed. Today, there is growing recognition of training's true potential not merely as job preparation but rather as a powerful development tool capable of returningbenefits to an organization that far exceed the cost of the training.Most human settlements organizations do not possess adequate resources for the growing service demands placedupon them. To most of these organizations it is clear that expenditures for training are necessary to maintain adequatelevels of employee performance. Rather than develop internal training capabilities, however, these organizations havefollowed the practice of relying on outside training institutions to advise them regarding appropriate training for theiremployees.Institutions offering training and assessment services for human settlements organizations vary in capability.Unfortunately, many of these institutions are not able to vary their programme content to meet the changing needs of human settlements organizations. On occasion, these institutions are charged by the organizations they serve withlacking real-world perspective and offering programmes that are without sufficient job relevance for the needs of specialized personnel.The determination of training needs requires careful and continuing research throughout an organization. Few outsidetraining institutions have the resources to devote to such rigorous activity. Consequently, the assessments that areconducted by these institutions tend to focus on general areas for improving work competency rather than thedevelopment of specific job-related skills.These observations are not meant to discredit training institutions. On the contrary, these institutions suffer from thelack of relevant performance data as much as the human settlements organizations they wish to serve. Without activeand continuous data collection as a basis for programme design, training will never have the impact on an organizationthat it should.The underlying premise of this manual is a simple one. To be effective, training must be based on a constant flow of Information that an organization generates about itself. Access to this information gives managers a reliable way todetermine when an investment in training can have the most benefit on performance anywhere in the organization.In 1985, UNCHS (Habitat), in collaboration with the Housing Corporation of Jordan, and with funding from the UnitedNations Development Programme (UNDP), organized and delivered a regional training course on urban projects for Arabstates. Recognizing the success of that course, several Arab states requested UNCHS (Habitat) to organize and UNDPto fund other courses to meet their short-term training needs. Among the courses requested were settlementmanagement, municipal finance, shelter project operation and maintenance and computer applications in humansettlements planning. A fundamental concern of UNCHS (Habitat) in the preparation of these training courses was thedevelopment of a curriculum that would match precisely the performance requirements of participating agencies.The present methodology for identifying training needs was initiated at the request of Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC)countries in the interest of Arab states. The funding for carrying out the initial research and field-testing came fromUNDP under project RAB/83/013. The Executing Agency for the project was UNCHS (Habitat). The current manual is anoutput of Sub-programme 8.2 of the 1986-87 UNCHS Work Programme.UNCHS (Habitat) decided to focus project attention, first, on a set of tools which could be used by national humansettlements agencies and training institutions to identify training needs and, second, on an investigation of theadequacy of training institutions to meet the identified needs. The present manual is designed to supply managers of 

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