database, and defining a database programming language that allows full programming capabilities aswell as traditional query facilities.Object databases suffered because of a lack of standardization: although standards were defined byODMG, they were never implemented well enough to ensure interoperability between products.Nevertheless, object databases have been used successfully in many applications: usually specializedapplications such as engineering databases or molecular biology databases rather than mainstreamcommercial data processing. However, object database ideas were picked up by the relational vendors andinfluenced extensions made to these products and indeed to the SQL language.
Post-Relational Database Models
Several products have been identified as post-relational because the data model incorporates relations butis not constrained by the Information Principle, requiring that all information is represented by data valuesin relations. Products using a post-relational data model typically employ a model that actually pre-datesthe relational model. These might be identified as a directed graph with trees on the nodes.Post-relational databases could be considered a sub-set of object databases as there is no need for object-relational mapping when using a post-relational data model. In spite of many attacks on this class of datamodels, with designations of being hierarchical or legacy, the post-relational database industry continuesto grow as a multi-billion dollar industry, even if the growth stays below the relational database radar.Examples of models that could be classified as post-relational are PICK aka Multivalve, and MUMPS,aka M.
Q: 2. Explain the concept of a Query? How a Query Optimizer works.Ans:
The aim of query processing is to find information in one or more databases and deliver it to the userquickly and efficiently. Traditional techniques work well for databases with standard, single-siterelational structures, but databases containing more complex and diverse types of data demand new queryprocessing and optimization techniques. Most real-
world data is not well structured. Today’s databases
typically contain much non-structured data such as text, images, video, and audio, often distributed acrosscomputer networks. In this complex milieu (typified by the World Wide Web), efficient and accuratequery processing becomes quite challenging. Principles of Database Query Processing for AdvancedApplications teaches the basic concepts and techniques of query processing and optimization for a varietyof data forms and database systems, whether structured or unstructured.
is the component of a database management system that attempts to determine themost efficient way to execute a query. The optimizer considers the possible query plans (discussed below)for a given input query, and attempts to determine which of those plans will be the most efficient. Cost-based query optimizers assign an estimated "cost" to each possible query plan, and choose the plan withthe least cost. Costs are used to estimate the runtime cost of evaluating the query, in terms of the numberof I/O operations required, the CPU requirements, and other factors.