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Leo 4: A man formally dressed a nd a deer with its horns folded

Leo 4: A man formally dressed a nd a deer with its horns folded

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Published by Starling

T h e w o r d ma n d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I n d o E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r oo t ma n -1 w h i c h m e a n s “man” and from which a l so descend

m a n i ki n, ma n ne q u in , m en s c h, an d M an u . 1
T h e w o r d f or mal ly d e s c e n d s f r o m t he G r e e k r o o t [ me rph - w h i c h m e a n s “ f or m . ” 2 Other d e r i v a t i ve s include the suffix



m o rp h , t he p r e f i x m o rp h o - , t h e s uf f

T h e w o r d ma n d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I n d o E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r oo t ma n -1 w h i c h m e a n s “man” and from which a l so descend

m a n i ki n, ma n ne q u in , m en s c h, an d M an u . 1
T h e w o r d f or mal ly d e s c e n d s f r o m t he G r e e k r o o t [ me rph - w h i c h m e a n s “ f or m . ” 2 Other d e r i v a t i ve s include the suffix



m o rp h , t he p r e f i x m o rp h o - , t h e s uf f

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Published by: Starling on Dec 10, 2011
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Starling Hunter © 2011 1
Leo 4: A man formally dressed and a deer with its horns folded
The word
man
descends from the Indo-European (IE) root 
man-1
which means
“man” and from which also descend
manikin, mannequin, mensch, and Manu.
 
The word
formally
descends from theGreek root 
[merph-
 
which means “form.”
2
 Other derivatives include the suffix
– 
morph 
, the prefix
morpho- 
, the suffix
– 
form 
, and the words
morpheme, formation,formant, format, formula, conform, inform, platform, reform, transform 
, and
uniform 
.The word
dress
means most commonlyto put on or arrange clothes. It can also refer to arranging or aligning of troops in ranks.
3
Both meanings descend from the Latin
directus 
, itself the past participle of 
dirigere,
to direct and both descends from the IEroot 
reg-
, “to move in a straight line.”
4
Several paronyms of 
dress 
mean
“to direct in a straight line, lead, rule.” These include
right, realm,rector, regimen, region, address, alert, direct, erect, rectangle, rectify,source, surge, reich, regal, reign, royal, viceroy, raj, maharaj, ruler,regulate, reckon, interrogate,
and
reckless.
The word
deer
descends from the root 
dheu-1
.
5
The root is defined as
being “the base of a wide variety of derivatives meaning ‘to rise in acloud,’ as dust, vapor, or smoke, and related to semantic notions of 
breath, various color adjectives, and forms denoting defective
perception or wits.” Among its many derivatives are the words
fume, perfume, funky 
(having a moldy or musty smell)
 , enthymeme, thyme,
1 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, p. 512 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=form3 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/dress4 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, pp. 705 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, p. 19
 
Starling Hunter © 2011 2
dizzy, doze, down 
(fine, soft, fluffy feathers)
 , thuja 
(red cedar)
 ,obfuscate, dun 
(neutral brownish gray to dull grayish brown), the name
Duncan 
,
deaf, dumb, dove, dwell, dolt, doldrums, dull, dock 
(sorrel, aplant) and
dudeen 
.The word
horn
descends from the root 
ker-1
 
which means “horn,head.”
6
Many of its derivatives refer to horned animals, horn-shapedobjects, and projecting parts, e.g.
horn, corn, Capricorn, carat, carrot,carotid, cerebellum, cervix, cheer, cornea, cranium, hornet,
and
reindeer.
The word
folded
descends from the root 
pel-3
, “to fold.”
7
Otherderivatives include the suffix
– 
 ple 
from whence we obtain words like
decuple, multiple, triple 
and the suffixes
– 
fold 
and
– 
 ploid 
.
THEMES:
One theme concerns
FORM/SHAPE
and the lack thereof.Recall that the paronyms of 
formally
include
form, format 
, and
formation 
. The root 
reg-
has at least one distinctive form associated withi
rectangle 
(A four-sided plane figure with four right angles). As notedabove, paronyms of 
horn
include several horn-shaped objects. In markedcontrast, at least two paronyms of 
deer
are shapeless or formless, e.g.
fume 
,
 perfume 
. Further recall that the root of 
deer
is
dheu-1
whichmeans
to rise in a cloud as dust, vapor, or smoke.
 A second and somewhat related theme concerns
OPACITY
. Recall
obfuscate 
is a paronym of 
deer
and means
to make so confused or
opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand” and “to render
indistinct or dim; darken.
Compare this to
direct 
, a paronym of 
dress
 
which can mean “to manage or guide by advice, helpful information,instruction”, “to give authoritative instructions to” and “to channel orfocus toward a given result, object, or end.”
8
 A third theme concerns
RULES
and
RULERS
. Recall that one of theparonyms of 
man
is
Manu 
who, in the Hindu religion, is the primordial
6 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, p. 407 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, p. 638 http://dictionary.reference.com/cite.html?qh=direct&ia=luna

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