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MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS IN KUTTANAD REGION OF KERALA STATE, INDIA: A MODEL FOR DECISION MAKING

MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS IN KUTTANAD REGION OF KERALA STATE, INDIA: A MODEL FOR DECISION MAKING

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Published by Dr. M.KRISHNAN
Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., 11(1996): 205-213
Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., 11(1996): 205-213

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Published by: Dr. M.KRISHNAN on Oct 26, 2008
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05/09/2014

 
MULTI-OBJECTIVE APPROACH FOR EVALUATIONOF FARMING SYSTEMS IN KUTTANAD REGION OFKERALA STATE, INDIA: A MODEL FOR DECISIONMAKING
M. KRISHNAN* and B.N. SHARMA
*Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, 141, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Madras 600 008, IndiaDivision of Agricultural Economics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
ABSTRACTMulti
-
objective analysis, via the constraint approach, of paddy-fishery enterprise system in theKuttanad region of Kerala State. lndia, is attempted to develop a trade-off analysis between paddyand fishery systems and to suggest optimal operating policies for the Thaneernukhom salt-water barrage for maximizing the returns from the region.Both primary an secondary data were collected and used in formulating the linear programming matrix, which formed the basis of the multi-objective analysis and the trade-off analysis by way of transformation curves.The trade-off analysis revealed a greater pay-off in gross area at the ‘ideal’ point of paddyarea ‘anti-ideal’ point of fish area. The shift in area from fish to paddy was greater in all the threecases than vice versa. The net benefit-loss figures arrived from actual and
 
normative values of areaand income generated showed an estimated maximum loss of 39.69% (1981-82) to a minimum loss20.89% (1984-85) during the 1980s for the region.Income was greater per unit area allocated from fish culture than from paddy cultivation.The study offered three alternatives for planners. The highest income. Rs. 340.30 million, could begenerated from the region by keeping the barrage open year-round. The highest paddy productioncould be obtained by keeping the barrage closed for 6 months. A via
 
media solution is to keep thebarrage open for 3 months (mid-December to March). This would provide an income of Rs. 267 8million.Key words: project evaluation, multi-objective programming, trade-off analysis, transformationcurves
Kuttanad region is a waterlogged low-lying area in South-central Kerala that hasproven advantage in paddy cultivation over other regions in the state. Yields andarea under paddy in Kuttanad have been consistent in comparison to other districtsof Kerala, which show a steady decline (BKH Consulting Engineers, 1989).Kuttanad offers practically no scope for crops other than paddy because of itsgeographical location. Brackishwater fish and shrimp are cultured on a commercial
J. Aqua. Trop.,
11
(1996) 205-213© Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
 
scale in the paddy fields. This culture. owing to the tidal ingress of sea water viathe Vembanad lake, is an age-old avocation and is practised seasonally or in anintegrated manner with paddy and perennially in a few locations (Shetty, 1965).Till 1975. the agricultural activities of Kuttanad were governed by nature. Inan effort to encourage paddy cultivation and also in an apparent effort to improvethe sown area under paddy in the state, the Government of Kerala commissionedin 1975 the Thaneermukhom salt-water barrage across the Vembanad lake to helpthe paddy farmers of Kuttanad to raise the punja’ (summer) crop well protectedfrom the tidal influx of the ease water during December to March. The barrage,originally scheduled to be closed for 3 months from mid-December to mid-Marchevery year, is now closed for almost 6 months each year owing to the indisciplinedway in which the ‘punja’ crop came to be cultivated from October to April of everyyear and also because of the growers’ vociferous protests of crop damage in casethe barrier was opened before the onset of the monsoon.This barrier has reportedly led to steady and substantial decline in thediversity and population of aquatic species including shrimps (Kurup and Samuel,1985). It also had a significant adverse impact on the fisherfolk of the region, whoare losing substantial production and consequently income (Venugopal, 1992).It is obvious that the unique and traditional farming system in the region hasbeen disturbed. An attempt to resolve this complex problem arising out of conflicting interests of paddy farmers on the one hand and the fish farmers on theother in the context of the barrage operations should consider the various issuesand multiple objectives.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe nature of conflicting objectives forces the economists and planners to have abroader and more comprehensive notion of the project and its evaluation. Thenature of the problem and the type of empirical data dictate the specific model tobe used, although non-availability of reliable and relevant empirical data limits thescope of mathematical modelling in farming system studies (Maji 1991).Multiple-criteria decision making became acceptable to researchers in 1972(Romero and Rehman, 1989). Its superiority over the standard linear programmingapproach has been often repeated. The choice of appropriate approach of multi-objective analysis in the attempt to model the Kuttanad farming system in thecontext of enabling a trade-off between paddy and fish farming systems andsuitable operating policies for the Thaneermukhom salt-water barrage for maximizing the returns from the region rests on the capacity of the methodology to(1) maximize the returns from paddy farming, (2) maximize the returns from fishfarming, and (3) facilitate a trade-off between the two enterprises.Of the available approaches to multi-objective analysis (Thampapillal, 1978;Willis and Perlack. 1980; Sandiford, 1986), multi-objective programming via theconstraint approach (Romero and Rehman, 1989) offered the most appropriateand correct methodology.Primary data were collected from 150 farmers, 50 each from ‘Karapadam,Kari’, and Kayal’ lands. All data relating to agricultural operations pertaining topaddy, fish, paddy-fish-paddy, and paddy-cum-fish farming were collected.Secondary data on macrovariables such as gross cropped area, availability of 
 
human labour, bullock labour, tractor hours, fertilizers, and teed for each type werecollected from various sources for the period under analysis.The standard linear programming matrix was developed and formed thebasis of the constraint approach to multi-objective programming. The generalnature of the multi-objective programming problem with q objectives can be statedas follows (Romero and Rehman, 1989):
Eff Z(X) =
[
1
(X), Z 
(X),….. Z 
q
(X)
]Sub to :
 X 
ε 
 where
Eff 
search for the efficient solutions and
= feasible set.The initial and useful information of the constraints approach to multi-objective programming was generated by optimizing one of the objectives(maximizing area paddy
1
) while the other (maximizing area under fish
1
) wasspecified ass restraint. This mathematical programming problem can be stated asMaximize
(X).
 Sub to:
 X 
ε 
 Z
 j 
(X)
L
 j 
J=1,2,……k-1, k+1,……..qwhere Z
(X) is the objective to be optimized. Through parametric variation of theright side L1, the efficient set was generated.This methodology enabled us to generate the pay-off matrix containing thedeal and the ‘anti-ideal’ values for maximization of paddy area and fish area. Thevalues when converted to monetary terms by using the farm harvest prices andyields gave the range of returns from paddy and fish. The ‘ideal’ and ‘anti-ideal’values defined the upper and lower bounds for the range where the parameter 
L
1
can vary. Parameterizing
L
1 for values belonging to the interval, an approximationof the efficient set was obtained. Efficient solutions were generated when theparametric constraints were binding at the optimal solutions.
Trade-offs
 The trade-off between two criteria meant the amount of achievement of onecriterion that was sacrificed to gain a unitary increase in the other one. Given two
 
efficient solutions X
1
and X
2
the trade-off between the
 j 
th or 
th criteria is given
 jk 
=
)()( )()(
2121
 X  f  X  f   X  f  X  f 
 j j
 where
 f 
 j
= maximization of padd area and
 f 
k
maximization of fish areaThe trade-off provided index for measuring the opportunity cost of criterionin terms of another.
1
 
Statistics on paddy area and fish area have been used in lieu of production statistics owing to thenon-availability of the latter on a time series basis. Trial runs made with the objective of maximization of paddy/fish production did not indicate any substantial difference in the levels of production of either, between values of the efficient set, thus justifying the use of area figures as aproxy for production in generating the efficient set.
 

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