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Tissue Culture Banana

Tissue Culture Banana

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Published by ABID H
Its containing the complete package for growing of tissue cultured banana.
Its containing the complete package for growing of tissue cultured banana.

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Published by: ABID H on Oct 26, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/21/2013

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Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd 
1
Tissue Culture Banana
What is Tissue Culture ?
The propagation of a plant by using a plant part or single cell or group cell in a testtube under very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue Culture".
Status in India
Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of production. InIndia it supports livelihood of million of people. With total annual production of 16.91million tones from 490.70 thousand ha., with national average of 33.5 T/ha.Maharashtra ranks first in production with 60 T/ha. Banana contributes 37% to totalfruit production in India.Banana is one of the major and economically important fruit crop of Maharashtra.Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India. Maharashtra rankssecond in area and first in productivity in India. Jalgaon is a major Banana growingdistrict in Maharashtra which occupy 50,000 hectares area under Banana. But most of Banana is grown by planting suckers. The technology development in agriculture isvery fast, it results in developing Tissue Culture Technique.
Agro Climate
Banana is basically a tropical crop, grows well in temperature range of 13ºC – 38ºCwith RH regime of 75-85%. In India this crop is being cultivated in climate rangingfrom humid tropical to dry mild subtropics through selection of appropriate varietieslike Grandnaine. Chilling injury occurs at temperatures below 12ºC. The normalgrowth of the banana begins at 18ºC, reaches optimum at 27ºC, then declines andcomes to a halt at 38ºC. Higher temperature causes sun scorching. High velocity windwhich exceeds 80 km phrs damages the crop.
 
Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd 
2
Soil
Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Deep,rich loamy soil with pH between 6-7.5 are most preferred for banana cultivation. Illdrained, poorly aerated and nutritionally deficient soils are not suitable for banana.Saline solid, calcareous soil are not suitable for Banana cultivation. Avoided soil of low laying areas, very sandy & heavy black cotton with ill drainage.A soil that is not too acidic & not too alkaline, rich in organic material with highnitrogen content, adequate phosphorus level and plenty of potash are good forbanana.
Varieties
In India banana is grown under diverse conditions and production systems. Selectionof varieties, therefore is based on a large number of varieties catering to variouskinds of needs and situations. However, around 20 cultivars viz. Dwarf Cavendish,Robusta, Monthan, Poovan, Nendran, Red banana, Nyali, Safed Velchi, Basarai,Ardhapuri, Rasthali, Karpurvalli, Karthali and Grandnaine etc..Grandnaine is gaining popularity and may soon be the most preferred variety due toits tolerance to biotic stresses and good quality bunches. Bunches have well spacedhands with straight orientation of figures, bigger in size. Fruit develops attractiveuniform yellow colour with better self life & quality than other cultivars.
Land Preparation
Prior to planting banana, grow the green manuring crop like daincha, cowpea etc. andburry it in the soil. The land can be ploughed 2-4 times and leveled. Use ratovator orharrow to break the clod and bring the soil to a fine tilt. During soil preparation basaldose of FYM is added and thoroughly mixed into the soil.A pit size of 45cm x 45cm x 45cm is normally required. The pits are to be refilled withtopsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM (well decomposed), 250 gm of Neem cake and 20 gmof conbofuron. Prepared pits are left to solar radiation helps in killing the harmfulinsects, is effective against soil borne diseases and aids aeration. In saline alkali soilwhere PH is above 8 Pit mixture is to be modified to incorporate organic matter.Addition of organic matter helps in reducing salinity while addition of purliteimproves, porosity and aeration. Alternative to planting in pits is planting in furrows.Depnding on soil strata one can choose appropriate method as well as spacing anddepth at which plant is required to be planted.
Planting Material
Sword suckers weighing approximately 500-1000 gm are commonly used aspropagating material. Suckers generally may be infected with some pathogens and
 
Source: Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd 
3
nematodes. Similarly due to the variation in age and size of sucker the crop is notuniform, harvesting is prolonged and management becomes difficult.Therefore, in-vitro clonal propagation i.e. Tissue culture plants are recommended forplanting. They are healthy, disease free, uniform and authentic. Properly hardenedsecondary seedlings are only recommended for planting
Advantages of Tissue Culture Planting Material
 
True to the type of mother plant under well management.
 
Pest and disease free seedlings.
 
Uniform growth, increases yield.
 
Early maturity of crop - maximum land use is possible in low land holdingcountry like India.
 
Round the year planting possible as seedlings are made available throughoutthe year.
 
Two s uccessive ratoons are possible in a short duration which minimizes costof cultivation.
 
No staggered harvesting.
 
95% - 98% plants bear bunches.
 
New varieties can be introduced and multiplied in a short duration.

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