is illuminated by a coherent plane wave which is also incidenton a smaller lens,
L
0
, separated by its focal length from theobject plane to convert the incident plane wave into a pointsource,
δ
(
x
−
a,y
−
b
)
, that is located at point
(
a,b
)
on the
(
x,y
)
plane. The lens
L
1
performs the FT operation. The ﬁeld
RecordingMediumIlluminationf f Fourier PlaneL1L0z
Fig. 2. Fourier holography with lens.
distribution on the
(
ξ,η
)
plane is given by Eq. 3.
U
(
f
X
,f
Y
)=
F{
O
(
x,y
) +
δ
(
x
−
a,y
−
b
)
}
=
F{
O
(
x,y
)
}
+
F{
δ
(
x
−
a,y
−
b
)
}
=
Q
(
f
X
,f
Y
) +
e
−
i
2
π
(
af
X
+
bf
Y
)
(3)Where
Q
(
f
X
,f
Y
)
is the FT of
O
(
x,y
)
,
f
X
=
ξ/λf
,
f
Y
=
η/λf
, and
f
is the focal length of
L
1
. The recorded intensityis given by Eq. 4.
I
(
f
X
,f
Y
)=1 +

Q
(
f
X
,f
Y
)

2
+
Q
∗
(
f
X
,f
Y
)
e
−
i
2
π
(
af
X
+
bf
Y
)
+
Q
(
f
X
,f
Y
)
e
i
2
π
(
af
X
+
bf
Y
)
(4)The recording of this intensity (whether on a ﬁlm or witha CCD) will produce a transmittance function that can beassumed is linearly proportional to the intensity of Eq. 4.Therefore, for reconstructing the image of the object, a planewave of the same wavelength can be used to illuminatethis transmittance function which will in turn generate awavefront,
W
whose complex amplitude immediately passedthe transparency (the zero propagation length) is the sameas the transmittance function. In the Fourier transform of
W
(done either numerically using a computer or with a lens) theﬁrst two terms in Eq. 4 will produce zeroorder (DC) termsand the last two terms will reproduce two inverted imagesof the original object centered at
(
−
a,
−
b
)
and
(
a,b
)
. Theimages are inverted because a double FT had to be performedand the Fourier transform of the Fourier transform of afunction returns the inverteddomain version of that function:
F{F{
f
(
x
)
}}
=
f
(
−
x
)
.
B. Lensless Fourier Hologram
In the previous section, the Fourier transforming propertiesof the lens were exploited to perform the FT operation.However it is possible to FT the transmittance function of anobject without employing a lens. Figure 3 shows a holographysystem in which the object is illuminated with a plane waveand a reference point source is located on the same plane
d
unitdistance away from the recording medium at point
(
a,b
)
of the object plane as the object. It is necessary that the referencewave and the object be on the same plane.
RecordingMediumIlluminationzPoint Sourced
Fig. 3. Lensless Fourier hologram.
Since the object’s illumination is a plane wave, the amplitude of the light distribution to the immediate right hand sideof the object is simply the transmittance function of the object.The distance
d
is chosen so that the propagation of the lightfrom the object can be expressed by Fresnel diffraction givenby Eq 6. Where the ﬁrst term is constant phase factor, thesecond term is a quadratic phase exponential, and the integralis the FT of the product of the object transmittance function
O
(
x,y
)
and a quadratic phase exponential.
U
i
(
ξ,η
)=
e
ikd
iλde
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
×
∫∫
O
(
x,y
)
e
ik
2
d
(
x
2
+
y
2
)
e
−
ik/d
(
xξ
+
yη
)
d
x
d
y
(5)
=
C e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
F
oe
(
f
X
,f
Y
);
(6)Eq. 6 is the compact form of Eq. 5 where
F
oe
(
f
X
,f
Y
) =
F{
O
(
x,y
)
e
ik
2
d
(
x
2
+
y
2
)
}
,
f
X
=
ξ/λd
, and
f
Y
=
η/λd
.From the reference point source a spherical wave propagatestowards the
(
ξ,η
)
plane. The propagation of this wave is givenby Eq. 7.
U
r
(
ξ,η
)=
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
e
ik/d
(
ξa
+
ηb
)
=
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
e
i
2
π
(
f
X
a
+
f
Y
b
)
(7)The ﬁeld distribution at the hologram’s plane is the superposition of the diffracted object ﬁeld and the reference waveand the intensity of this superposition is given by Eq. 8.
I
(
f
X
,f
Y
)=
A
DC
+
C
∗
F
∗
oe
e
i
2
π
(
f
X
a
+
f
Y
b
)
+
C F
oe
e
−
i
2
π
(
f
X
a
+
f
Y
b
)
(8)Where
A
DC
is the sum of all zeroorder terms. The quadraticphase factor at the hologram plane
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
, that wascommon in both
U
r
and
U
i
, was cancelled in the intensity.Eq. 8 is very similar to Eq. 4 except that there is an additionalconstant phase factor which can be dropped and the imagecontains a quadratic phase exponential.In reconstructing the original object, a plane wave can beused as in the Fourier hologram with lens but a lens will be