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Fourier Holography

Fourier Holography

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Published by Sahand Noorizadeh
ECE 510 Final Project
ECE 510 Final Project

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Published by: Sahand Noorizadeh on Dec 11, 2011
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Fourier Holography
Sahand Noorizadeh
School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringPortland State University – Portland, Oregon 97201Email: sahand.noorizadeh@gmail.com
 Abstract
—In this paper the limitations of direct imaging andthe need for holography is explained. The fundamental conceptof holography is presented and two types of Fourier holographytechniques with and without lens are discussed in detail withmathematical derivations. Furthermore, a brief comparison of the available recording media and their limitations are outlined.Lastly, an application of the Fourier holography in the biomedicalmicroscopy is explored.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
All the available optical recording media such as film orCCD are only capable of recording the intensity of the light.The intensity being a time-averaged quantity does not carryany phase information. Rather it is proportional to the power of the optical wave incident on the recording medium from whichonly the amplitude can be obtained. A direct recorded imageof an object only has information about the amplitude of thelight wave received from the object and the phase informationis lost. In most practical applications of optics, it is the phaseinformation that is of interest. The phase of a traveling wavewith wavelength
λ
is proportional to the distance traveled bythe wave. As shown in Figure 1, two identical waves originatedfrom the same point, traveling in two different directions, andobserved at the distance
x
have two different amplitudes. If multiple observations of the amplitude of the two waves atpoint
x
are made over a long period of time as the waves traveland then these values are averaged, the resulting amplitudevalues for both points on the observation line would be thesame. That is the reason why the phase information is lost inthe intensity measurements.
xo
Fig. 1. Phase vs. traveling distance of a wave.
Holography is a method of recording optical interferenceof light from an object with a reference light to be ableto reconstruct the image of the recorded object. Until theinvention of coherent light sources such as laser, holographywas not entirely feasible and practical because in order to beable to form well-defined and measurable fringe patterns bythe means of interference, the wavelength of the light sourceneeds to be stable and coherent.Assuming two waves
a
(
x,y
)
and
A
(
x,y
)
represented bytheir phasor, their interference (superposition) is given by Eq.1 and the intensity of their interference is given by Eq. 2which is the magnitude squared of the amplitude interferencefunction.
B
(
x,y
) =
|
a
(
x,y
)
|
e
(
x,y
)
+
|
A
(
x,y
)
|
e
(
x,y
)
(1)
(
B
)=
|
a
(
x,y
)
|
2
+
|
A
(
x,y
)
|
2
+ 2
|
a
(
x,y
)
||
A
(
x,y
)
|×
cos
[
ϕ
(
x,y
)
ψ
(
x,y
)]
(2)The interference allows the phase difference of the waves to bepreserved. If the phase of one of the interfered waves is known,the phase of the other wave can be found. In holography, thebehavior of one of the two waves is known (the referencewave) and the other is the scattered wave from a subject whosebahavior will be measured.The options of arrangement of the recording setup (i.e.position of the object with respect to the recording mediumand the reference wave) has led to a wide range of classesof holography. Fore example, depending on the distance of the object from the recording medium, the propagation of light waves from the object could be best characterized bythe Fresnel (near-field) propagation law or by the Fraunhofer(far-field) propagation law. The different effects of each of the preceding arrangements on the interference pattern at therecording plane has been the cause of different classificationof holography systems. Another type of holography is definedby the angle of illumination: on-axis and off-axis. One othertype of holography that is the subject of the remaining of thispaper is Fourier holography.II. F
OURIER
H
OLOGRAPHY
In Fourier holography, the Fourier transform (FT) of theobject’s amplitude transmittance is recorded. To achieve this,there are two methods used: a)
Fourier Transform Holographywith Lens
and b)
Lens-Less Fourier Holography
.
 A. Fourier Transform Hologram with Lens
In the first method, a lens is used to place the object andthe reference wave at the back focal plane of the lens andrecord the FT of the interference of the the reference and theobject’s transmittance function. Figure 2 shows a setup of aFT hologram where the object transmittance function
O
(
x,y
)
 
is illuminated by a coherent plane wave which is also incidenton a smaller lens,
L
0
, separated by its focal length from theobject plane to convert the incident plane wave into a pointsource,
δ
(
x
a,y
b
)
, that is located at point
(
a,b
)
on the
(
x,y
)
plane. The lens
L
1
performs the FT operation. The field
RecordingMediumIlluminationFourier PlaneL1L0z
Fig. 2. Fourier holography with lens.
distribution on the
(
ξ,η
)
plane is given by Eq. 3.
(
X
,
)=
F{
O
(
x,y
) +
δ
(
x
a,y
b
)
}
=
F{
O
(
x,y
)
}
+
F{
δ
(
x
a,y
b
)
}
=
Q
(
X
,
) +
e
i
2
π
(
af 
X
+
bf 
Y  
)
(3)Where
Q
(
X
,
)
is the FT of 
O
(
x,y
)
,
X
=
ξ/λf 
,
=
η/λf 
, and
is the focal length of 
L
1
. The recorded intensityis given by Eq. 4.
 I 
(
X
,
)=1 +
|
Q
(
X
,
)
|
2
+
Q
(
X
,
)
e
i
2
π
(
af 
X
+
bf 
Y  
)
+
Q
(
X
,
)
e
i
2
π
(
af 
X
+
bf 
Y  
)
(4)The recording of this intensity (whether on a film or witha CCD) will produce a transmittance function that can beassumed is linearly proportional to the intensity of Eq. 4.Therefore, for reconstructing the image of the object, a planewave of the same wavelength can be used to illuminatethis transmittance function which will in turn generate awavefront,
whose complex amplitude immediately passedthe transparency (the zero propagation length) is the sameas the transmittance function. In the Fourier transform of 
(done either numerically using a computer or with a lens) thefirst two terms in Eq. 4 will produce zero-order (DC) termsand the last two terms will reproduce two inverted imagesof the original object centered at
(
a,
b
)
and
(
a,b
)
. Theimages are inverted because a double FT had to be performedand the Fourier transform of the Fourier transform of afunction returns the inverted-domain version of that function:
F{F{
(
x
)
}}
=
(
x
)
.
 B. Lensless Fourier Hologram
In the previous section, the Fourier transforming propertiesof the lens were exploited to perform the FT operation.However it is possible to FT the transmittance function of anobject without employing a lens. Figure 3 shows a holographysystem in which the object is illuminated with a plane waveand a reference point source is located on the same plane
d
unitdistance away from the recording medium at point
(
a,b
)
of the object plane as the object. It is necessary that the referencewave and the object be on the same plane.
RecordingMediumIlluminationzPoint Sourced
Fig. 3. Lensless Fourier hologram.
Since the object’s illumination is a plane wave, the ampli-tude of the light distribution to the immediate right hand sideof the object is simply the transmittance function of the object.The distance
d
is chosen so that the propagation of the lightfrom the object can be expressed by Fresnel diffraction givenby Eq 6. Where the first term is constant phase factor, thesecond term is a quadratic phase exponential, and the integralis the FT of the product of the object transmittance function
O
(
x,y
)
and a quadratic phase exponential.
i
(
ξ,η
)=
e
ikd
iλde
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
×
∫ 
O
(
x,y
)
e
ik
2
d
(
x
2
+
y
2
)
e
ik/d
(
+
)
d
x
d
y
(5)
=
C e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
oe
(
X
,
);
(6)Eq. 6 is the compact form of Eq. 5 where
oe
(
X
,
) =
F{
O
(
x,y
)
e
ik
2
d
(
x
2
+
y
2
)
}
,
X
=
ξ/λd
, and
=
η/λd
.From the reference point source a spherical wave propagatestowards the
(
ξ,η
)
plane. The propagation of this wave is givenby Eq. 7.
r
(
ξ,η
)=
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
e
ik/d
(
ξa
+
ηb
)
=
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
e
i
2
π
(
X
a
+
Y  
b
)
(7)The field distribution at the hologram’s plane is the super-position of the diffracted object field and the reference waveand the intensity of this superposition is given by Eq. 8.
 I 
(
X
,
)=
A
DC 
+
oe
e
i
2
π
(
X
a
+
Y  
b
)
+
C F 
oe
e
i
2
π
(
X
a
+
Y  
b
)
(8)Where
A
DC 
is the sum of all zero-order terms. The quadraticphase factor at the hologram plane
e
ik
2
d
(
ξ
2
+
η
2
)
, that wascommon in both
r
and
i
, was cancelled in the intensity.Eq. 8 is very similar to Eq. 4 except that there is an additionalconstant phase factor which can be dropped and the imagecontains a quadratic phase exponential.In reconstructing the original object, a plane wave can beused as in the Fourier hologram with lens but a lens will be

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