primarily because the standard was not being adopted. Interestingly, we now know thatthe US Government considered sharing the secret LEAF keys with China, Syria, andPakistan.
The plan for the Clipper chip deployment was to offer it to industry as a standardto build off of. According to a presidential directive in April 1993, however, “Shouldindustry fail to fully assist the government in meeting its requirements within areasonable period of time, the Attorney General will recommend legislation which wouldcompel manufacturers to meet government requirements."
This was not a viable option; public opposition to mandated back doors was too large, as could have been seen fromthe S. 266 case.By this point, the US Administration was convinced that a mandatory back door policy was not feasible. The US Department of Justice stated: “The Administration doesnot advocate a mandatory approach, and believes that a voluntary solution is preferable."
All future attempts at controlling cryptography aimed to establish an encryption standardwhich included a back door. This would not preclude the use of unbreakable encryption;it would just make it more difficult, since it would not be the standard.There were indications that industry might voluntarily include back doors in itscryptographic products. On October 2
, 1996, a group of companies led by IBM formedthe Key Recovery Alliance (KRA).
The KRA was created to advocate internationalcryptographic standards suitable for electronic commerce which included back doors for
“U.S. Considered Sharing Security Secrets With China, Syria, Pakistan;” Charles R. Smith; May 15,2001; http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/5/14/203404.shtml
“Al Gore bugs America?” WorldNetDaily; August 2, 2000; http://www.beyond-the-illusion.com/files/New-Files/20000831/al_gore_presses_for_the_bugging_of_every_american.txt
Department of Justice, Cryptographic Export Policy FAQ, historically available at:http://www.cybercrime.gov/cryptfaq.htm
“High-tech leaders join forces to enable international strong encryption,” October 2, 1996; seehttp://www.interesting-people.org/archives/interesting-people/199610/msg00005.html