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Fundamentals of Computer Studies

Fundamentals of Computer Studies

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Published by: ADEBISI JELEEL ADEKUNLE on Dec 12, 2011
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EXPERT SOLUTION CONSULTS
(ESC)
FUNDAMENTALS
OF
COMPUTER STUDIES
 
Computer Training Expert Solution Consults Fundamentals of Computer Studiesii/59, Nov - 2010
Learn to Know Why and How!
 adebisijeleel@yahoo.com or adebisijeleel@gmail.comTABLES OF CONTENTS
TABLES OF CONTENTS.............................................................................................................................................................................II
 
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE..........................................................................................................................................1
 
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................................................1
 
USES
 
OF
 
COMPUTERS..............................................................................................................................................................................1
 
HISTORY
 
OF
 
COMPUTING.......................................................................................................................................................................2
 
GENERATIONS
 
OF
 
COMPUTERS...........................................................................................................................................................3
 
First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes.......................................................................................................................................3
 
Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors.........................................................................................................................................3
 
Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits...............................................................................................................................3
 
Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors ...........................................................................................................................3
 
Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence............................................................................................................4
 
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE.................................................................................................................................................................4
 
DIFFERENT PARTS OF A COMPUTER AND THEIR USES...............................................................................................................4
 
The monitor...............................................................................................................................................................................................5
 
The system box or computer console.......................................................................................................................................................5
 
The keyboard (Pressing)..........................................................................................................................................................................5
 
The Mouse (Clicking and Dragging).......................................................................................................................................................
 
The Peripherals.........................................................................................................................................................................................
 
 Disk Size Conversion Chart (Bits, Bytes, Kilobytes, Megabytes and Gigabytes).................................................................................8
 
TYPES OF COMPUTERS..............................................................................................................................................................................8
 
ANATOMY OF COMPUTER SYSTEM.....................................................................................................................................................9
 
COMPUTER
 
HARDWARE.........................................................................................................................................................................9
 
THE
 
CENTRAL
 
PROCESSING
 
UNIT
 
(CPU)............................................................................................................................................9
 
INPUT
 
DEVICES........................................................................................................................................................................................10
 
OUTPUT
 
DEVICES....................................................................................................................................................................................11
 
STORAGE
 
DEVICES.................................................................................................................................................................................11
 
SYSTEM
 
MEMORY...................................................................................................................................................................................11
 
HARDWARE CONNECTIONS..................................................................................................................................................................12
 
COMPUTER SOFTWARE..........................................................................................................................................................................12
 
SYSTEM
 
SOFTWARE...............................................................................................................................................................................12
 
O
PERATING
S
YSTEM
.....................................................................................................................................................................................13
 
Function of the OS..................................................................................................................................................................................14
 
Classification of OS................................................................................................................................................................................14
 
The Difference between Windows &Macs ............................................................................................................................................14
 
U
TILITY
S
OFTWARE
......................................................................................................................................................................................14
 
APPLICATION
 
SOFTWARE....................................................................................................................................................................15
 
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS ACCORDING TO SIZE........................................................................................................15
 
COMPUTER VIRUSES AND SECURITY................................................................................................................................................16
 
COMPUTER
 
VIRUSES..............................................................................................................................................................................16
 
T
YPES OF
V
IRUSES
.......................................................................................................................................................................................16
 
H
OW
V
IRUSES ARE
S
PREAD
.........................................................................................................................................................................17
 
P
REVENTION OF
C
OMPUTER
V
IRUS
.............................................................................................................................................................17
 
V
IRUS
D
ETECTION
........................................................................................................................................................................................18
 
COMPUTER
 
SECURITY...........................................................................................................................................................................18
 
BASIC COMPUTER MAINTENANCE....................................................................................................................................................19
 
MAINTENANCE........................................................................................................................................................................................19
 
P
REVENTIVE
M
AINTENANCE
........................................................................................................................................................................19
 
C
ORRECTIVE
M
AINTENANCE
.......................................................................................................................................................................22
 
I
NSPECTIONS
.................................................................................................................................................................................................26
 
WORKING WITH DESKTOP....................................................................................................................................................................27
 
 
Computer Training Expert Solution Consults Fundamentals of Computer Studiesiii/59, Nov - 2010
Learn to Know Why and How!
 adebisijeleel@yahoo.com or adebisijeleel@gmail.com
WORKING WITH WINDOWS...................................................................................................................................................................28
 
D
IALOG
B
OXES
.............................................................................................................................................................................................29
 
T
HE
S
INGLE
D
OCUMENT
I
NTERFACE
(SDI)................................................................................................................................................29
 
T
HE
M
ULTIPLE
D
OCUMENT
I
NTERFACE
(MDI)..........................................................................................................................................29
 
T
HE
W
INDOWS
C
ONTROLS
..........................................................................................................................................................................29
 
M
AIN
M
ENU
D
ISPLAY
..................................................................................................................................................................................30
 
C
ATEGORIES OF
M
ENUS
...............................................................................................................................................................................30
 
M
AIN AND
C
ONTEXT
-S
ENSITIVE
M
ENUS
....................................................................................................................................................31
 
USING THE SYSTEM (BOOTING/SHUTTING DOWN).....................................................................................................................33
 
INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET...................................................................................................................................................34
 
C
OMPUTER
N
ETWORK
(N
ETWORKING AND
I
NTERNETWORKING
).............................................................................................................34
 
TYPES
 
OF
 
NETWORKS............................................................................................................................................................................36
 
 Local Area Networks (LANS).................................................................................................................................................................36 
 
Wide Area Networks (WANS)................................................................................................................................................................3
 
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANS)..............................................................................................................................................36 
 
 Intranet: A Secure Internet-Like Network for Organizations..............................................................................................................36 
 
 Extranet: A Secure Means for Sharing Information with Partners.....................................................................................................37 
 
HISTORY
 
OF
 
THE
 
INTERNET................................................................................................................................................................37
 
W
HY THE
I
NTERNET
?...................................................................................................................................................................................38
 
P
ROTOCOLS
(R
ULES OF
N
ETWORKING
).......................................................................................................................................................38
 
T
HE
W
ORLD
W
IDE
W
EB
..............................................................................................................................................................................38
 
F
ILE
S
HARING AND
T
OPIC
S
EARCHING
........................................................................................................................................................40
 
B
ROWSERS
....................................................................................................................................................................................................40
 
W
EB
S
ITE
 /W
EB
P
AGE
...................................................................................................................................................................................41
 
S
EARCH
E
NGINES
.........................................................................................................................................................................................42
 
D
OWNLOADING
............................................................................................................................................................................................43
 
C
HAT OR
I
NTERNET
T
ELECONFERENCE
.......................................................................................................................................................43
 
T
ELNET
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................43
 
DISADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTER.........................................................................................................................................44
 
TYPING/KEYBOARDING..........................................................................................................................................................................44
 
USING HELP AND SUPPORT KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS................................................................................................................44
 
FILE PROCESSING......................................................................................................................................................................................48
 
SIMPLE DISK MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................................................51
 
DOCUMENTS................................................................................................................................................................................................51
 
FILE MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................................................................................................54
 

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