CONSTITUTIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY CENTER
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors thank Rachel Sauter for her work in editing and formatting this narrative and SimonLazarus, Jim Ryan, Judith Schaeffer, Pat Wald and Elizabeth Wydra, for reviewing earlier drafts
and providing helpful advice on improving the nal product. Constitutional Accountability Center
gratefully acknowledges funding for this narrative from the Open Society Institute, the Deer Creek
Foundation, and Eldon Crowell.
ABOUT CONSTITUTIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY CENTER
Constitutional Accountability Center (CAC) is a think tank, law rm, and action center dedicatedto fullling the progressive promise of our Constitution’s text and history. We work in our courts,
through our government, and with legal scholars to preserve the rights and freedoms of all Americans
and to protect our judiciary from politics and special interests. Visit us at www.theusconstitution.org for more information about the organization and its work and visit our Text and History Blog,www.textandhistory.org, for analysis of how constitutional text and history inform current legal and political debates.ABOUT THE TEXT AND HISTORY NARRATIVE SERIES
is the second in a series of Constitutional Accountability Center
reports about the text and history of our Constitution. Every provision of the Constitution has a nar
-rative – a story of its enactment; the men and women who pushed for constitutional change; the events
and cases that motivated the provision’s framers and ratiers; and the debates – both in the courts and political branches – about its meaning. Through this series, CAC will tell the most important andcompelling stories in the American canon: our Constitution’s text, its creation, and the efforts over the past 220 years to improve the document. These narratives will not only distill the best legal and
historical scholarship and bring alive forgotten Americans, they will also help us better understand our
Constitution and inform how modern debates about the Constitution should be resolved.
Copyright © 2009 by Constitutional Accountability Center