CHARLES III: The Enlightment Depotism
The eighteenth century also called the Age of Enlightenment, comprises the years 1701-1800, inclusive. It arose during the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.After the political and military chaos lived in the seventeenth century, the eighteenthcentury, not without conflict, will see a remarkable development in the European artsand sciences, the old social structures based on feudalism and serfdom, will bequestioned and ultimately eliminated, while, especially in England, started the IndustrialRevolution and Europe's economic takeoff.In the eighteenth century witnessed the final phase of the Baroque and Classicisminherited from the seventeenth century and the emergence of the Rococo: Evolution of the Baroque, in which arise new forms of great originality that deviate completely fromRenaissance classical canon. It is characterized by profuse decoration, with plenty of curved lines. Are also other movements such as Neoclassicism and Preromanticism.In music, composers as Vivaldi, Handel, Bach, Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, whoreturn to a simpler music style gallant.In the literature there is a more rationalist movement: Voltaire and other Enlightenmentliterature advocate a useful, instructive and rational, contrary to the fantasies and a firmbasis in the facts or true. His ideas spread throughout the continent.The French Revolution (1789) brings about changes in society, confidence in reason andthe idea of progress, the abolition of class differences and proclaims the equality of themen. The bourgeoisie reaches social primacy and strengthens its power . All this leads
to a political weakening of the Catholic Church as practices of “regalismo” or the
separation of church and state and the discrediting of the Inquisition.
The society of the XVIII century
The society of the XVIII century was divided in three statements. These statementswere fixed so people could not move from one to another.The first statement was the nobility; they owned the majority of the land and had
reserved the top positions in the Church, Army, Navy, Politics…
The second state was the clergy, they owned the 40% of the land and their aim insociety was the spiritual care and the education.The third state was composed by the rest of the population and can be subdivided in twogroups: the people who lived in the countryside as the farmers and the one who lived inthe cities as the bourgeoisie.The cities of the XVIII century were not paved and were poorly lit, there lived the king,in the palace and around him the royal court and the nobility. In the poor neighborhoodsof the outside lived the craftsmen and the workers.The economy of the XVIII century was not very developed and depended primarily onagriculture and livestock.The agriculture until the middle of the century was not very developed because of thewars, diseases and the bad techniques to cultivate. It was with the reforms introduced byCharles III when the agriculture started to grow.