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Charles III

Charles III

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Published by: Richard Taylor Pleite on Dec 12, 2011
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CHARLES III: The Enlightment Depotism
 
Historical setting
The eighteenth century also called the Age of Enlightenment, comprises the years 1701-1800, inclusive. It arose during the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.After the political and military chaos lived in the seventeenth century, the eighteenthcentury, not without conflict, will see a remarkable development in the European artsand sciences, the old social structures based on feudalism and serfdom, will bequestioned and ultimately eliminated, while, especially in England, started the IndustrialRevolution and Europe's economic takeoff.In the eighteenth century witnessed the final phase of the Baroque and Classicisminherited from the seventeenth century and the emergence of the Rococo: Evolution of the Baroque, in which arise new forms of great originality that deviate completely fromRenaissance classical canon. It is characterized by profuse decoration, with plenty of curved lines. Are also other movements such as Neoclassicism and Preromanticism.In music, composers as Vivaldi, Handel, Bach, Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, whoreturn to a simpler music style gallant.In the literature there is a more rationalist movement: Voltaire and other Enlightenmentliterature advocate a useful, instructive and rational, contrary to the fantasies and a firmbasis in the facts or true. His ideas spread throughout the continent.The French Revolution (1789) brings about changes in society, confidence in reason andthe idea of progress, the abolition of class differences and proclaims the equality of themen. The bourgeoisie reaches social primacy and strengthens its power . All this leads
to a political weakening of the Catholic Church as practices of “regalismo” or the
separation of church and state and the discrediting of the Inquisition.
The society of the XVIII century
The society of the XVIII century was divided in three statements. These statementswere fixed so people could not move from one to another.The first statement was the nobility; they owned the majority of the land and had
reserved the top positions in the Church, Army, Navy, Politics…
The second state was the clergy, they owned the 40% of the land and their aim insociety was the spiritual care and the education.The third state was composed by the rest of the population and can be subdivided in twogroups: the people who lived in the countryside as the farmers and the one who lived inthe cities as the bourgeoisie.The cities of the XVIII century were not paved and were poorly lit, there lived the king,in the palace and around him the royal court and the nobility. In the poor neighborhoodsof the outside lived the craftsmen and the workers.The economy of the XVIII century was not very developed and depended primarily onagriculture and livestock.The agriculture until the middle of the century was not very developed because of thewars, diseases and the bad techniques to cultivate. It was with the reforms introduced byCharles III when the agriculture started to grow.
 
The livestock was also very important to the Spanish economy, not only because of thelarge number of cattle that existed but because of the importance the wool had for thecommerce. It was of a very extraordinary quality and was exported out of Spain mainlyto Flandes.Other economic sectors were the crafts workshops; they clustered in association called
“gremios” according to their specialty for example the shoemakers or the tailors.
The commerce was not very developed because there was not enough money to buy andthe transports were not very good. The exchanges were made practically through localmarkets and the comarcal fairs that were held.
Life of Charles III
BIRTHOn January 20, 1716 , Charles III was born in the old and huge Álcazar, fruit of themarriage of Philip V with his second wife, Elizabeth Farnese a woman with a strongpersonality and her own political opinionCHILHOODHis childhood was spent based on the rules established by the Spanish royal family forthe education of young children. Until the age of seven years was entrusted to the careof women, Maria Antonia of Salcedo. Charles III would receive a proper education tobecome a good leader in a future. An education based on the religion, art, languages,military, also it was combined with the courtly dance, music and riding to forge thepersonality of a Young educated in the the values of the Catholic supremacyOn July 3, 1735 in Palermo with only nineteen years old Charles III was proclaimedKing of the Two Sicilies. He lived in Naples for a quarter century, there, he began areform policy in a complicated country dominated by the privileged clases. In Naples heformed his large family, with his beloved wife Maria Amalia de SajoniaDuring his reign in Naples, Charles set definitely his character and reign model, alwayshelped by his personal adviser Bernardo Tanucci and always protected by their parentsfrom MadridThe reignIn general terms he learned to be a moderate King in the action of government, asovereign who knew how to animate a reformist policy, he got that the kingdom wasincreasingly more Italian and had some consideration in the international situation.Charles III was a very pious king, with a sense of life certainly providential accused.Their thinking, their language and their actions were always imbued with the CatholicreligionCharles had always kept the helm of the Spanish ship and always he was who set hiscourse,Esquilache, Campomanes, Aranda and Florida Blanca, among others were able to seethat.
The Age of the Enlightment
This age is situated in the XVIIIs. Moreover, it received the nomenclature of Illustration. This concept means an intellectual movement of renewal in which makes acritical review of the main important ideas and values that governed before this age.
 
This was because they wanted to forget the darkness, all beliefs with rational basis, thepolitic and religious privileges, etc.Focusing on King Charles III, who was the best Spanish Enlightenment king parexcellence, served his royal learning as king of Naples. At this time, the Enlightenedwas a period in charge of changing the whole society through the application of thereason (the main idea) in the political, economical and social problems.Not with standing, Charles had to carry out the economical changes but the Enlightenedhad serious problems to penetrate in his kingdom and the population offered aresistance.The church was financing public charities when the government decreed that thoseactions were antisocial just with the reason of that the public charities were todiscourage initiative. Because of that, they were after abolished. For this reason, therewere many problems with the Jesuits because they were who participated in the superioreducation and because of that,which one had to disappear.However, not all were negative aspects, Charles III had one of the best governments inthe history. The economic recovery increases, but he couldn´t improve everything, forexample, the land use or the agrarian reform. He also wanted to create the media classbut it was impossible because the population was closed to the bourgeois vision.After losing Great Britain in the Seven Year´s War and having allied with France, Spainwith Charles III recovered many lands lost in previous events. But that conquest hecame in a waking when his son Charles IV acceded to the throne.During the Enlightenment, many artists of whole fields had their main splendor asFrancisco José Goya, a painter whose technique was frescoes, the brush and manyothers.There were many other highlight personalities in other fields. For example, in literaturewas important Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Ignacio Luján, Francisco de Isla, Torres
Villarroel… In philosophy stood out Descartes, Hume, Rousseau, Kant be
tween othersand there were also important the creation of the encyclopedia by Diderot andD´Alembert and the ideas of Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire.
The Enlightened Despotism
The enlightened despotism was a form of government was trying to reconcile theabsolutism with new ideas of the Enlightenment, trying to do to combine the interests of the monarchy to the welfare of the governed. It was developed during the second half of the eighteenth century.Esquilache riotDuring the easter of 1766 in Madrid and in other areas of Spain. The discontent of thecommon people because of the bad situation of the Spanish agriculture; the discontentof the soldiers because of the bad situation of the army and the navy; and the discontentof the clergy and the upper classes because the government attempted to establish newland reforms to help the poor. This widespread discontent was pointing at thegovernment in general, and at the Marquis of Esquilache in particular.

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