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APEH, The Thirty Years' War and Secular States

APEH, The Thirty Years' War and Secular States

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Published by: Julie on Oct 27, 2008
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guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryFrance, Thirty Years’ War, Balance of Power, Dutch Republic, EnglandTHE DISINTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF FRANCE
Political and Religious Disunity 
 After 40 years of civil war based on politics and religion, local influence was still a strong force inFrance. There were 300 areas with their own legal systems, the
bonnes villes ( 
king’s “good towns,”),and guild towns. Each of these had their own laws, courts, taxes, and parliament.Calvinism was also spreading in France. Since the French kings already had control over the Gallicanchurch, they did not turn to Protestantism. Instead, the Protestantism that spread in Francedeveloped without government support, becoming a radical theological wing – Calvinism. TheHuguenots, French Calvinists, were always a minority, but certainly not a small one. They were alsoclear-cut and radical. About a half of the French nobility was Protestant during the 1560s or 1570s.Seignurs believed they should have the right to regulate religion on their own estates (
ius reformandi ius reformandi ius reformandi ius reformandi 
).Since the nobility were so involved in the Calvinist movement, the monarchs viewed it as political orfeudal rebellion and became opposed to its spread. When King Henry II died, his wife, Catherine de’Medici tried to govern France for her three sons. Under a weak monarchy, the Catholics andHuguenots began to fight for power of the government.
The Civil and Religious Wars 
 Huguenots were led by Admiral de Coligny and Henry of Bourbon, king of Navarre. The Guise familyand the Cardinal of Lorraine headed the Catholic party. When the leading Huguenots were gathered inParis on St. Bartholomew’s Day to celebrate the marriage of Henry of Navarre, Catherine de’ Medicicalled for the massacre of the Huguenots there. While Coligny were killed, Henry of Navarre escaped.This attack prompted the Huguenots to retaliate fiercely. While Spanish troops invaded France oninvitation of the Guises, Protestant towns appealed to ElizabethElizabethElizabethElizabeth IIII of England, who only sentinsignificant assistance. Neither side could subdue the other.Gradually, a group developed that thought of themselves as the
politiques 
. They felt that there wastoo much emphasis being put on religion, and that no doctrine justifies constant war. There waspossibly room for two churches, and, above all, France needed civil order. One of the
politiques 
wasJean BodinJean BodinJean BodinJean Bodin, the founder of modern absolutism. He believed that in every society, there is one powerthat can give order to all with their consent if possible, and without their consent if necessary.
The End of the Wars: Reconstruction under Henry IV 
 Both Henry of Guise and Henry III (one of Catherine’s sons) were assassinated. Thus, Henry of Navarre,now Henry IV, the Huguenot leader, came to power as the king of France. The Catholic party thenrefused to recognize him and called in the Spaniards. As a
politique 
, he supposedly said that “Paris is
 
guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com AP European HistoryFrance, Thirty Years’ War, Balance of Power, Dutch Republic, Englandwell worth a Mass” and became a Catholic through papal absolution. After this, the Catholicsconsented to work with him, while the Huguenots became concerned for their safety.As a result, Henry IV passed the Edict of Nantes, which allowed every seigneur the right to holdProtestant services in his own household. There would also be at least one Protestant town in each
baillage 
(county), or more if it was the prevailing form of worship. Protestants could also enjoy thesame civil rights, chance for public office, and access to Catholic universities. In supreme law courts,one would be tried by one’s religious peers. Protestants were also allowed to have 100 fortified towns.*Comitatus: something given for something received.After Henry IV subdued the religious strife, he worked to lead the country in recovery. He also workedto put the ruined government back together, to collect taxes, pay officials, discipline the army, andsupervise the administration of justice. He never summoned the Estates General and laid thefoundations of the royal absolutism of the Bourbons.
Cardinal Richelieu 
 In 1610, Henry IV was assassinated, leaving his widow, Marie de’ Medici to govern France. In her nameand her young son, Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu took control of the government. He worked for thestate, not the Church, and could have been considered a
politique 
a generation earlier. He extendedmercantilistic trade to “gentlemen” and allows merchants to become nobles if they made payments tothe royal exchequer (treasury). Richelieu also prohibited private warfare, ordered the destruction of fortified cities, and dueling. In the Peace of Alais, the Huguenots were made to give up fortified cities.Protestants lost their fortified cities, Protestant armies, and military and territorial rights, whilekeeping their religious and civil rights.A major goal was to find policies on how to limit the power of the Habsburgs, whose holdingssurrounded France. Additionally, Cardinal Richelieu wanted to advance the French border to the RhineRhineRhineRhine,a naturally defensive border. The Franche ComtéFranche ComtéFranche ComtéFranche Comté could then serve as a bufferbufferbufferbuffer between France and theHoly Roman Empire.THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
Background of the Thirty Years’ War 
 The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 provided that in each state the government could prescribe the religionof his subjects, whether Lutheran or Catholic. However, Calvinists had no right under the Peace of Augsburg. Even so, many states became Calvinist, one of which was the Palatinate, whose ruler wasone of the seven persons who elected the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Protestant statesformed a union to defend their gains. A league of Catholic German states was organized by Bavaria.Thus, the Germans were coming together into two parties that each requested foreign assistance.The Thirty Years’ War became:

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