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Miklós Bartha and Miklós Krész- Deterministic Soliton Graphs

Miklós Bartha and Miklós Krész- Deterministic Soliton Graphs

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Informatica
30
(2006) 281–288
281
Deterministic Soliton Graphs
Miklós BarthaDepartment of Computer ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’s, NL, CanadaE-mail: bartha@cs.mun.caMiklós KrészDepartment of Computer ScienceJuhász Gyula Teacher Training CollegeUniversity of Szeged, HungaryE-mail: kresz@jgytf.u-szeged.hu
Keywords:
soliton automata, matching theory
Received:
March 23, 2005
Soliton graphs are studied in the context of a reduction procedure that simplifies the structure of graphswithout affecting the deterministic property of the corresponding automata. It is shown that an elementary soliton graph defines a deterministic automaton iff it reduces to a graph not containing even-length cycles.Based on this result, a general characterization is given for deterministic soliton graphs using chestnut graphs, generalized trees, and graphs having a unique perfect matching.Povzetek:ˇ Clanek obravnava grafe brez lihih ciklov.
1 Introduction
One of the most ambitious goals of research
1
in modernbioelectronics is to develop a molecular computer. The in-troduction of the concept “soliton automaton” in [5] hasbeen inspired by this research, with the intention to cap-ture the phenomenon called soliton waves [4] through anappropriate graph model.Soliton graphs and automata have been systematicallystudied by the authors on the grounds of matching theoryin a number of papers. Perhaps the most significant contri-bution among these is [2], where soliton graphs have beendecomposed into elementary components, and these com-ponents have been grouped into pairwise disjoint familiesbasedonhowtheycanbereachedbyalternatingpathsstart-ing from external vertices. This paper can also serve as asource of further references on soliton automata for the in-terested reader.Since soliton automata are proposed as switching de-vices, deterministic automata are in the center of investi-gations. The results reported in this paper are aimed at pro-viding a complete characterization of deterministic solitonautomata. The two major aspects of this characterizationare:1. Describing elementary deterministic soliton graphs.2. Recognizing that deterministic soliton graphs hav-ing an alternating cycle follow a simple hierarchical patterncalled a chestnut.
1
Partially supported by Natural Science and Engineering ResearchCouncil of Canada, Discovery Grant #170493-03
An important tool in the study of both aspects is areduction procedure, which might be of interest by itself.It allows elementary deterministic soliton graphs to bereduced to generalized trees, and it can also be used toreduce chestnut graphs to really straightforward ones,called baby chestnuts.
2 Soliton graphs and automata
By a graph
G
= (
(
G
)
,
(
G
))
we mean an undirectedgraph with multiple edges and loops allowed. A vertex
v
(
G
)
is called
external
if its degree is one, and
internal
if the degree of 
v
is at least two. An internal vertex is
base
if it is adjacent to an external one. External edges are those of 
(
G
)
that are incident with at least one external vertex, andinternal edges are those connecting two internal vertices.Graph
G
is called
open
if it has at least one external vertex.A
walk 
in a graph is an alternating sequence of ver-tices and edges, which starts and ends with a vertex, andin which each edge is incident with the vertex immediatelypreceding it and the vertex immediately following it. The
length
of a walk is the number of occurrences of edges init. A
trail
is a walk in which all edges are distinct and a
 path
is a walk in which all vertices are distinct. A cycle isa trail which can be decomposed into a path and an edgeconnecting the endpoints of the path. If 
α
=
ve
1
...e
n
w
isa walk from
v
to
w
and
β 
=
wf 
1
...f 
k
z
is a walk from
w
to
z
, then the
concatenation
of 
α
and
β 
is the walk 
α
β 
=
ve
1
...e
n
wf 
1
...f 
k
z
from
v
to
z
.A
matching
of graph
G
is a subset of 
(
G
)
such that
 
282
Informatica
30
(2006) 281288 M. Bartha et al.
no vertex of 
G
occurs more than once as an endpoint of some edge in
. It is understood by this definition thatloops cannot participate in any matching. The endpointsof the edges contained in
are said to be
covered 
by
. A
perfect internal matching
is a matching that cov-ers all of the internal vertices. An edge
e
(
G
)
is
al-lowed (mandatory)
if 
e
is contained in some (respectively,all) perfect internal matching(s) of 
G
.
Forbidden edges
arethose that are not allowed. We shall also use the term
con-stant edge
to identify an edge that is either forbidden ormandatory. An open graph having a perfect internal match-ing is called a
soliton graph
. A soliton graph
G
is
elemen-tary
if its allowed edges form a connected subgraph cover-ing all the external vertices. Observe that if 
G
is elemen-tary, then it cannot contain a mandatory edge, unless
G
isa mandatory edge by itself with a number of loops incidentwith one of its endpoints.Let
G
be an elementary soliton graph, and define the re-lation
on
Int
(
G
)
as follows:
v
1
v
2
if an extra edge
e
connecting
v
1
with
v
2
becomes forbidden in
G
+
e
. It isknown, cf. [6, 2], that
is an equivalence relation, whichdetermines the so called
canonical partition
of (the internalvertices of)
G
. The reader is referred to [6] for more infor-mation on canonical equivalence, and on matching theoryin general.Let
G
be a graph and
be a matching of 
G
. An edge
e
(
G
)
is said to be
-positive
(
-negative
) if 
e
(respectively,
e
). An
-alternating path (cycle)
in
G
is a path (respectively, even-length cycle) stepping on
-positive and
-negative edges in an alternating fash-ion. An
-alternating loop
is an odd-length cycle havingthe same alternating pattern of edges, except that exactlyone vertex has two negative edges incident with it. Let usagree that, if the matching
is understood or irrelevant ina particular context, then it will not be explicitly indicatedin these terms. An
external alternating path
is one that hasan external endpoint. If both endpoints of the path are ex-ternal, then it is called a
crossing
. An alternating path is
 positive
if it is such at its internal endpoints, meaning thatthe edges incident with those endpoints are positive.Let
G
be a soliton graph, fixed for the rest of this sec-tion, and let
be a perfect internal matching of 
G
. An
-
alternating unit 
is either a crossing or an alternating cy-cle with respect to
.
Switching
on an alternating unitamounts to changing the sign of each edge along the unit.It is easy to see that the operation of switching on an
-alternating unit
α
creates a new perfect internal matching
(
M,α
)
for
G
. Moreover, as it was proved in [1], everyperfect internal matching
of 
G
can be transformed intoany other perfect internal matching
by switching ona collection of pairwise disjoint alternating units. Conse-quently, an edge
e
of 
G
is constant iff there is no alternat-ing unit passing through
e
with respect to any perfect in-ternal matching of 
G
. A collection of pairwise disjoint
-alternating units will be called an
-alternating network 
,andthenetworktransformingoneperfectinternalmatching
into another
will be denoted by
(
M,
)
. Clearly,
a)c-trailb)l-trail
Figure 1: Soliton trails.
(
M,
)
is unique.Now we generalize the alternating property to trails andwalks. An
alternating trail
is a trail
α
stepping on positiveand negative edges in such a way that
α
is either a path, orit returns to itself only in the last step, traversing a negativeedge. The trail
α
is a
c-trail
(
l-trail
) if it does return toitself, closing up an even-length (respectively, odd-length)cycle. That is,
α
=
α
1
α
2
, where
α
1
is a path and
α
2
isa cycle. These two components of 
α
are called the
handle
and
circuit 
, in notation,
h
(
α
)
and
c
(
α
)
. The joint vertexon
h
(
α
)
and
c
(
α
)
is called the
center 
of 
α
. An
externalalternating trail
is one starting out from an external vertex,and a
soliton trail
is a proper external alternating trail, thatis, either a c-trail or an l-trail. See Fig. 1.The collection of 
external alternating walks
in
G
withrespect to some perfect internal matching
, and the con-cept of switching on such walks are defined recursively asfollows.(i) The walk 
α
=
v
0
ev
1
, where
e
= (
v
0
,v
1
)
with
v
0
beingexternal, is an external
-alternating walk, and switchingon
α
results in the set
(
M,α
) =
{
e
}
. (The operation
is symmetric difference of sets.)(ii) If 
α
=
v
0
e
1
...e
n
v
n
is an external
-alternating walk ending at an internal vertex
v
n
, and
e
n
+1
= (
v
n
,v
n
+1
)
is such that
e
n
+1
(
M,α
)
iff 
e
n
(
M,α
)
, then
α
=
αe
n
+1
v
n
+1
is an external
-alternating walk and
(
M,α
) =
(
M,α
)∆
{
e
n
+1
}
.It is required, however, that
e
n
+1
=
e
n
, unless
e
n
(
M,α
)
is a loop.It is clear by the above definition that
(
M,α
)
is a perfectinternal matching iff the endpoint
v
n
of 
α
is external, too.In this case we say that
α
is a
soliton walk 
.E
XAMPLE
Consider the graph
G
of Fig. 2, and let
=
{
e,h
1
,h
2
}
. A possible soliton walk from
u
to
v
with respect to
is
α
=
uewgz
1
h
1
z
2
l
2
z
3
h
2
z
4
l
1
z
1
gwfv
.Switching on
α
then results in
(
M,α
) =
{
f,l
1
,l
2
}
.Graph
G
gives rise to a
soliton automaton
A
G
, the statesof which are the perfect internal matchings of 
G
. The inputalphabet for
A
G
is the set of all (ordered) pairs of externalvertices in
G
, and the state transition function
δ
is defined
 
DETERMINISTIC SOLITON GRAPHS Informatica
30
(2006) 281–288
283
h
Figure 2: Example soliton graph
G
by
δ
(
M,
(
v,w
)) =
{
(
M,α
)
|
α
is a soliton walk,
v
to
w
}
.
Graph
G
is called
deterministic
if 
A
G
is such in the usualsense, that is, if for every state
and input
(
v,w
)
,
|
δ
(
M,
(
v,w
))
| ≤
1
.E
XAMPLE
(Continued) Observe that the soliton au-tomaton defined by the graph of Fig. 2 is non-deterministic,as
α
=
uewfv
is also a soliton walk from
u
to
v
with re-spect to state
such that
(
M,α
)
=
(
M,α
)
.Let
α
be a soliton c-trail with respect to
. It is easy to seethat the walk 
s
(
α
) =
h
(
α
)
c
(
α
)
h
(
α
)
R
is a soliton walk, and the effect of switching on
s
(
α
)
is thesame as switching on the cycle
c
(
α
)
alone. (For any walk 
β 
,
β 
R
denotes the reverse of 
β 
.) If 
α
is a soliton l-trail, then
s
(
α
)
is defined as the soliton walk 
s
(
α
) =
h
(
α
)
c
(
α
)
c
(
α
)
h
(
α
)
R
.
Clearly, thiswalkinducesaself-transitionof 
A
G
, thatis, nostate change is observed. In the sequel, all perfect internalmatchings of 
G
will simply be called
states
for obviousreasons.Recall from [5] that an edge
e
of 
G
is
impervious
if thereis no soliton walk passing through
e
in any state of 
G
. Edge
e
is
viable
if it is not impervious. See Fig. 2, edge
h
for anexample of an impervious edge.We are going to give a simpler characterization of imper-vious edges in terms of alternating paths, rather than walks.To this end, we need the following lemma.
Lemma 2.1.
If 
α
is an external
-alternating walk from
v
to
u
 , then there exists an
-alternating network 
Γ
and an external
-alternating trail
β 
from
v
to
u
such that 1.
Γ
consists of cycles only, and it is disjoint from
β 
;2.
(
M,α
) =
(
(
M,
Γ)
,β 
)
.
Proof.
Easy induction on the length of 
α
, left to thereader.
2
An internal vertex
v
(
G
)
is called
accessible
withrespect to state
if there exists a positive external
-alternating path leading to
v
. It is easy to see, cf. [2], thatvertex
v
is accessible with respect to some state
iff 
v
isaccessible with respect to all states of 
G
.
Proposition2.2.
Foreveryedge
e
(
G
)
 ,
e
isimperviousiff both endpoints of 
e
are inaccessible.
Proof.
If either endpoint of 
e
is accessible, then
e
isclearly viable. Assume therefore that both endpoints
u
1
and
u
2
of 
e
are inaccessible, and let
α
be an arbitraryexternal
-alternating walk from
v
Ext
(
G
)
to either
u
1
or
u
2
, say
u
1
. By Lemma 2.1, there exists a suitableexternal
-alternating trail
β 
from
v
to
u
1
. Each internaledge lying on
β 
has an accessible endpoint, so that
e
is notamong them. Moreover, the edge of 
h
(
β 
)
incident with
u
1
must be positive with respect to
(
M,α
)
, otherwise
h
(
β 
)
would be a positive external alternating path with respectto state
(
M,
Γ)
. (Recall that
h
(
β 
)
is the handle of 
β 
, andtake
h
(
β 
) =
β 
if 
β 
is just a path.) But then
e
must benegative with respect to
(
M,α
)
, or else
h
(
β 
)
eu
2
wouldbe a positive external alternating path leading to
u
2
(withrespect to
(
M,
Γ)
, or even
, since
Γ
is disjoint from
β 
). We conclude that the wal
α
cannot continue on
e
,because it must take the two positive edges incident with
u
1
before and after hitting that vertex. Thus, every time anexternal alternating walk reaches either endpoint of 
e
, itwill miss
e
as a possible continuation. In other words,
e
isimpervious.
2
3 Elementary decomposition of soliton graphs
Again, let us fix a soliton graph
G
for the entire section.In general, the subgraph of 
G
determined by its allowededges has several connected components, which are calledthe
elementary components
of 
G
. Notice that an elemen-tary component can be as small as a single external ver-tex of 
G
. Such elementary components are called
degener-ate
, and they are the only exception from the general rulethat each elementary component is an elementary graph.A
mandatory elementary component 
is a single mandatoryedge
e
(
G
)
, which might have a loop around one orboth of its endpoints.The structure of elementary components in a solitongraph
G
has been analysed in [2]. To summarize the mainresults of this analysis, we first need to review some of thekey concepts introduced in that paper. Elementary compo-nents are classified as
external
or
internal
, depending onwhether or not they contain an external vertex. An ele-mentary component of 
G
is
viable
if it does not containimpervious allowed edges. A viable internal elementarycomponent
is
one-way
if all external alternating paths(with respect to any state
) enter
in vertices belongingto the same canonical class of 
. This unique class, as wellas the vertices belonging to this class, are called
principal
.Furthermore, every external elementary component is con-sidered a priori one-way (with no principal canonical class,

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