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Technologies for Transparency and Accountability: Implications for ICT Policy and Recommendations

Technologies for Transparency and Accountability: Implications for ICT Policy and Recommendations

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This report focuses on analyzing the conditions under which new technologies can enhance delivery of public services to the poor through improved accountability and transparency. It examines the linkages between the use of innovations in technology, increased accountability and the effects on the delivery of public services to poor communities. Specifically, the paper investigates the role that the combination of social media, geo-mapping and various technology platforms can play in this process.
This report focuses on analyzing the conditions under which new technologies can enhance delivery of public services to the poor through improved accountability and transparency. It examines the linkages between the use of innovations in technology, increased accountability and the effects on the delivery of public services to poor communities. Specifically, the paper investigates the role that the combination of social media, geo-mapping and various technology platforms can play in this process.

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Published by: WorldBankPublications on Dec 14, 2011
Copyright:Attribution

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03/11/2014

 
2
 
Contents
 
1
 
Executive
 
Summary
 
.....................................................................................................
 
5
 
2
 
Introduction
 
................................................................................................................
 
8
 
3
 
Theories
 
of 
 
transparency,
 
accountability
 
and
 
participatory
 
initiatives
 
(TAIs)
 
..........
 
10
 
3.1
 
Transparency
 
initiatives:
 
Definitions
 
and
 
Assumptions
 
.....................................
 
10
 
3.2
 
Accountability
 
initiatives:
 
Definitions
 
and
 
Assumptions
 
....................................
 
12
 
3.3
 
Participatory
 
initiatives:
 
Definitions
 
and
 
Assumptions
 
......................................
 
13
 
3.4
 
Relationships
 
among
 
transparency,
 
accountability
 
and
 
participation
 
..............
 
14
 
4
 
Traditional
 
(non
/pre
ICT)
 
transparency
 
and
 
accountability
 
initiatives
 
...................
 
20
 
4.1
 
Making
 
government
 
information
 
transparent
 
...................................................
 
20
 
4.1.1
 
Right
 
to
 
information....................................................................................
 
20
 
4.1.2
 
Transparent
 
budget
 
information
 
................................................................
 
21
 
4.2
 
Auditing
 
government
 
information
 
and
 
services
 
................................................
 
23
 
4.2.1
 
Complaint
 
mechanisms
 
...............................................................................
 
23
 
4.2.2
 
Citizen
 
report
 
cards
 
and
 
community
 
scorecards
 
........................................
 
23
 
4.2.3
 
Community
 
Monitoring
 
..............................................................................
 
27
 
4.2.4
 
Public
 
hearings
 
and
 
social
 
audits
 
................................................................
 
28
 
4.2.5
 
Public
 
Expenditure
 
Monitoring
 
...................................................................
 
28
 
4.3
 
Public
 
participation
 
in
 
budget
 
............................................................................
 
29
 
4.3.1
 
Participatory
 
budgeting
 
..............................................................................
 
29
 
4.3.2
 
Gender
 
Budgeting
 
.......................................................................................
 
31
 
4.4
 
Dialogue
 
and
 
activism
 
........................................................................................
 
32
 
5
 
Technologies
 
for
 
transparency,
 
accountability
 
and
 
participation
 
............................
 
33
 
5.1
 
Websites
 
and
 
wikis
 
.............................................................................................
 
34
 
5.1.1
 
Public
 
Information
 
or
 
Transparency
 
Campaigns.........................................
 
34
 
 
3
 
5.1.2
 
Tracking
 
voting
 
records/politicians
 
.............................................................
 
35
 
5.1.3
 
Digital
 
budgeting
 
.........................................................................................
 
35
 
5.2
 
Social
 
media
 
.......................................................................................................
 
39
 
5.2.1
 
Publicizing
 
Information
 
and
 
Organizing
 
Crowds
 
.........................................
 
39
 
5.2.2
 
Deepening
 
Democracy
 
and
 
Long
Term
 
Impact
 
..........................................
 
40
 
5.3
 
Interactive
 
mapping
 
...........................................................................................
 
42
 
5.3.1
 
Mapping
 
Election
 
Results
 
............................................................................
 
42
 
5.3.2
 
Citizen
 
Reporting
 
issues
 
..............................................................................
 
42
 
5.3.3
 
Crime
 
Mapping
 
............................................................................................
 
44
 
5.3.4
 
Budgets
 
and
 
Financial
 
Transactions
 
............................................................
 
44
 
5.3.5
 
The
 
Case
 
of 
 
Sithi:
 
Mapping
 
Human
 
Rights
 
Violations
 
.................................
 
45
 
5.4
 
SMS
 
and
 
Voice
 
Based
 
Reporting
 
........................................................................
 
46
 
5.4.1
 
Citizen
 
Reporting
 
Issues
 
with
 
Service
 
Delivery
 
...........................................
 
46
 
5.4.2
 
The
 
Case
 
of 
 
CGNet
 
Swara:
 
localized
 
citizen
 
 journalism
 
..............................
 
46
 
5.5
 
Hybrid
 
and
 
"older"
 
technologies
 
........................................................................
 
48
 
6
 
Findings,
 
discussion
 
and
 
policy
 
recommendations
 
..................................................
 
49
 
6.1
 
The
 
value
 
of 
 
ICTs
 
................................................................................................
 
49
 
6.2
 
Research
 
and
 
policy
 
recommendations
 
.............................................................
 
52
 
6.2.1
 
Impact
 
on
 
the
 
poor
 
and
 
information
 
capabilities
 
.......................................
 
52
 
6.2.2
 
Online
 
or
 
offline
 
impact/
 
Measuring
 
social
 
impact
 
....................................
 
53
 
6.2.3
 
Comparison
 
between
 
ICT
 
and
 
non
ICT
 
enabled
 
initiatives
 
........................
 
54
 
6.2.4
 
A
 
comprehensive
 
database
 
.........................................................................
 
54
 
6.2.5
 
Changing
 
nature
 
of 
 
state
 
............................................................................
 
55
 
6.2.6
 
Research
 
methods
 
......................................................................................
 
55
 
6.2.7
 
Robustness
 
of 
 
data
 
.....................................................................................
 
56
 
6.2.8
 
Gender
 
and
 
participation
 
............................................................................
 
56
 
6.2.9
 
Regulation
 
and
 
Ethics
 
..................................................................................
 
57
 

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