Society of Applied Sciences
Extramural Aero-bacteriological Quality of HospitalEnvironment
Apurva K.Pathak* and Karuna S. Verma
*Deptt. of Pathology & Microbiology, Modern Dental College & Research Center, Indore(M.P.)-453112, India, e-mail: email@example.com.
Aeroallergens and Immunology LaboratoryDepartment of Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur (M.P.) India -482001
A hospital produces waste by giving their service to the patients. This waste can be produced directlyin combination with the service (e.g. injection) or in the upstream (e.g. blood or urine cultures in thelaboratory) or downstream (vaccine) process. One kind of typical diseases treated in hospitals isinfectious diseases. By the services for known or unknown infectious patients, waste can be thesource of an infectious agent. If the microorganisms have survived the aerial transport, they can growand reproduce in the new environment and may spread further. If a living organism inhales theairborne particles, their fate will depend on many factors. Large particles, i.e. larger than 5 mdiameters, easily adhere to the mucus membranes of the upper respiratory tracts. Continuouslymoving cilia guide the particles to the throat, where they removed by coughing or swallowing.Particles smaller than 5 mm inhaled into the deeper parts of the lungs, many bacteria and viruses arethus well adapted by their size to reach the alveoli . The lungs represent one of the largestinterfaces between the human organism and its environment, and thus a major site of interaction withmicroorganisms and its products. Infection of the lung is one of the most frequent causes of morbidityand death. Toxic substances can enter into the lungs either during infection by Gram-negative bacteria(40–60% of all cultured-diagnosed pneumonia), or when carried by inhaled airborne particles.Hospital environment consisted high level of potentially hazardous bacteria, fungi and other allergenic and / or immuno-toxic agents. These agents may penetrates into lungs of exposedresidences or dwellers and evoke inflammatory reaction leading to respiratory disease, such asasthma, mucous membrane irritation, allergic alveolitis etc. Hospital waste is not necessary a sourceof infectious agents. Only if the waste suspected to contain infectious agents like bacteria viruses, parasites, or fungi in a sufficient concentration it will be infectious waste. Members of the
, flavobacteria, andother non-fermentative bacilli can able to grow well in environmental fluids and some entericorganisms (e.g.,
and Proteus spp.) that have limited powers of multiplication atenvironmental sites, are the potential source of infection, once these bacteria are introduced into the
ASIAN J. EXP.BIOL.SCI., VOL1(1) 2010
ASIAN J. EXP. BIOL. SCI. VOl 1 (1) 2010:128-135 ABSTRACT
An extramural aero-bacteriological study was undertaken to determine typical concentrations of airborneculturable bacteria at the vicinity of a local hospital in the tropical environment of India. Hospital acquired infection is a common phenomenon; however, hospital as a source of infection for the surroundings community is yet to be established. Present aero-bacteriological investigation includesenumeration, identification, and numerical analysis of air borne culturable bacteria in hospital associated environment. Bacteria isolated from the environment during the present study wererepresentative of normal micro flora of the skin, respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts; it also includesthe opportunistic pathogens like Acinetobacter and Flavobacterium species with the environmental non- pathogenic genera. In this study respirable and nonrespirable fraction of bacteria were also quantify.The Pearson correlation study shows that both temperature and humidity have an effect on tenacity and prevalence of the allbacterial type. A regression model with 67.15 % variance is also prepared in order to predict the bio-load for this atmosphere.
Aerosolization, Aero-bacteriological investigation, Enterobacteriaceae and Prediction.