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Volume 13, Number 3 July-October, 2008
Geometric Transformations II
 Kin Y. Li
Olympiad Corner 
The following are the problems of the2008 IMO held at Madrid in July.
Problem 1.
An acute-angled triangle
 ABC 
has orthocenter 
 H 
. The circle passing through
 H 
with centre themidpoint of 
 BC 
intersects the line
 BC 
at
 A
1
and
 A
2
. Similarly, the circle passingthrough
 H 
with centre the midpoint of 
CA
intersects the line
CA
at
 B
1
and
 B
2
,and the circle passing through
 H 
withthe centre the midpoint of 
 AB
intersectsthe line
 AB
at
1
and
2
. Show that
 A
1
,
 A
2
,
 B
1
,
 B
2
,
1
,
2
lie on a circle.
Problem 2.
 
(a) Prove that
1)1()1()1(
222222
++
 z  z  y y x x
 
for all real numbers
 x, y, z,
eachdifferent from 1, and satisfying
 xyz 
= 1.(b) Prove that equality holds above for infinitely many triples of rationalnumbers
 x, y, z,
each different from 1,and satisfying
 xyz 
= 1.
Problem 3.
Prove that there existinfinitely many positive integers n suchthat
n
2
+1 has a prime divisor which isgreater than 2
n
+
.2
n
 
(continued on page 4)
 
Editors:
 
 
 
 
(CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK
 
 
(KO Tsz-Mei)
 
 
(LEUNG Tat-Wing)
 
 
(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST
 
 
(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU
Artist:
 
 
 
(YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU
Acknowledgment:
Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept.,HKUST for general assistance.
On-line:
 http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/The editors welcome contributions from all teachers andstudents. With your submission, please include your name,address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for thenext issue is
October 31, 2008
.For individual subscription for the next five issues for the05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressedenvelopes. Send all correspondence to:Dr. Kin-Yin LIDepartment of MathematicsThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyClear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong KongFax: (852) 2358 1643Email:makyli@ust.hk  
Below the vector from
 X 
to
will bedenoted as
 XY 
. The notation
 ABC 
=
α
 means the ray
 BA
after rotated an angle|
α
| (anticlockwise if 
α
 
> 0, clockwise if 
α
 
< 0) will coincide with the ray
 BC 
.On a plane, a
translation
by a vector v(denoted as
(v)) moves every point
 X 
 to a point
such that
 XY 
= v. On thecomplex plane
, if the vector vcorresponds to the vector from 0 to
v
,then
(v) has the same effect as thefunction
 f 
:
given by
 f 
(
w
)=
w
+
v
. A
homothety
about a center 
and ratio
 (denoted as
 H 
(
,
)) moves every point
 X 
to a point
such that
CY 
=
CX 
. If 
 corresponds to the complex number 
c
in
, then
 H 
(
,
) has the same effect as
 f 
(
w
) =
(
w
 
c
)+
c
=
rw
+ (1
)
c
.A
rotation
about a center 
by angle
α
 (denoted as
 R
(
C,
α
)) moves every point
 X 
to a point
such that
CX = CY 
and
 XCY =
α
. In
, if 
corresponds to thecomplex number 
c
, then
 R
(
C,
α
) has thesame effect as
 f 
(
w
) =
e
i
α
(
w
 
c
) +
c
=
 e
i
α
w
+ (1
e
i
α
)
c
.A
reflection
across a line
(denoted as
(
)) moves every point
 X 
to a point
 such that the line
is the perpendicular  bisector of segment
 XY 
. In
, let
(
)send 0 to
b
. If 
b
= 0 and
 
is the linethrough 0 and
e
i
θ 
 /2
, then
(
) has thesame effect as.)(
wew f 
i
θ 
=
If 
b
0,then let
b
= |
b
|
e
i
 β 
,
e
i
θ 
 
=
e
2i
 β 
and
 L
bethe
 
vertical line through |
b
|/2. In
,
(
 L
)sends
w
to
wb
||
. Using that,
(
) is
.)|(|)(
bwewebew f 
iii
+==
θ  β  β 
 We have the following useful facts:
Fact 1.
If 
1
 
2
, then
(
2
)
 
(
1
) =
(2
 A
1
 A
2
),where
 A
1
is on
1
and
 A
2
is on
2
suchthat the length of 
 A
1
 A
2
is the distance
 from
1
to
2
.(
 Reason
: Say
1
,
2
are vertical linesthrough
 A
1
= 0,
 A
2
= d 
. Then
(
1
),
(
2
)are
ww f 
=
)(
1
and
.2)(
2
ww f 
+=
 So
(
2
)
 
(
1
) is
( )
,22))((
12
www f  f 
+=+=
 which is
(2
 A
1
 A
2
). )
Fact 2.
If 
1
 
2
, then
(
2
)
 
(
1
) =
 R
(
O,
α
),where
1
intersects
2
at
O
and
α
istwice the angle from
1
to
2
in theanticlockwise direction.(
 Reason:
Say
O
is the origin,
1
is the
 x
-axis. Then
(
1
) and
(
2
) are
ww f 
=
)(
1
and
,)(
2
wew f 
i
α 
=
 so
(
2
)
 
(
1
) is
 f 
2
(
 f 
1
(
w
)) =
e
i
α
w
, whichis
 R
(
O,
α
). )
Fact 3.
If 
α
 
+
 β 
is not a multiple of 360°,then
 R
(
O
2
,
 β 
)
R
(
O
1
,
α
) =
R
(
O,
α
+
 β 
),where
OO
1
O
2
=
 
α
/2,
O
1
O
2
O
=
 
 β 
/2.If 
α
 
+
 β 
is a multiple of 360°, then
 R
(
O
2
,
 β 
)
R
(
O
1
,
α
) =
(
O
1
O
3
),where
 R
(
O
2
,
 
 β 
) sends
O
1
to
O
3
.(
 Reason
: Say
O
1
is 0,
O
2
is
1. Then
 R
(
O
1
,
α
),
 R
(
O
2
,
 β 
) are
 f 
1
(
w
) =
e
i
α
w
,
 f 
2
(
w
)=
e
i
 β 
w
+(
e
i
 β 
1), so
 f 
2
(
 f 
1
(
w
)) =
e
i( 
α
+
 β 
 )
w
+(
e
i
 β 
1). If 
e
i( 
α
+
 β 
 )
1, this is a rotationabout
c’ 
= (
e
i
 β 
1)/(1
e
i
(
α
+
 β 
)
) by angle
α
+
 β 
. We have
,)2/)sin(( )2/sin(
)2/(
α π 
 β α  β 
+=
i
ec
 
.)2/)sin(( )2/sin( 1
2/
 β 
 β α 
i
ec
+=
 If 
e
i( 
α
+
 β 
 )
= 1, this is a translation by
e
i
 β 
1
 
=
 f 
2
(0). )
Fact 4.
If 
O
1
,
O
2
,
O
3
are noncollinear,
α
1
,
α
2
,
α
3
> 0,
α
1
+
α
2
+
α
3
=360
°
and
 R
(
O
3
,
α
3
)
R
(
O
2
,
α
2
)
R
(
O
1
,
 
α
1
) =
 I 
,where
 I 
is the identity transformation,then
O
3
O
1
O
2
=
 
α
1
/2,
O
1
O
2
O
3
=
 
α
2
/2and
O
2
O
3
O
1
=
 
α
3
/2.(This is just the case
α
3
=360
°
(
α
1
+
α
2
)of fact 3.)
 
Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jul.-Oct. 08 
Page 2
 
Fact 5.
Let
O
1
 
O
2
. For 
1
2
1,
 H 
(
O
2
,
2
)
(
O
1
,
1
) =
(
O
,
1
2
)for some
O
on line
O
1
O
2
. For 
1
2
= 1,
 H 
(
O
2
,
2
)
(
O
1
,
1
) =
((1
2
)
O
1
O
2
).(
 Reason
: Say
O
1
is 0,
O
2
is
c
. Then
 H 
(
O
1
,
1
),
 H 
(
O
2
,
2
) are
 f 
1
(
w
) =
1
w
,
 f 
2
(
w
)=
2
w
+(1
2
)
c
, so
 f 
2
(
 f 
1
(
w
)) =
1
2
w+
(1
2
)
c
. For 
1
2
1, this is ahomothety about
c’ 
= (1
2
)
c
/(1
1
2
)and ratio
1
2
. For 
1
2
= 1, this is atranslation by (1
2
)
c
. ) Next we will present some examples.
 Example 1.
In
 ABC 
, let
 E 
be onside
 AB
such that
 AE 
:
 EB
=1:2 and
 D
be onside
 AC 
such that
 AD
:
 DC 
= 2:1. Let
 F 
  be the intersection of 
 BD
and
CE 
.Determine
 FD
:
 FB
and
 FE 
:
 FC 
.
 A B E  D F 
 
 Solution.
We have
 H 
(
 E 
,
1/2) sends
 B
 to
 A
and
 H 
(
, 1/3) sends
 A
to
 D.
Since(1/3)×(
1/2)
1, by fact 5,
 H 
(
, 1/3)
 
 H 
(
 E 
,
1/2) =
 H 
(
O
,
1/6),where the center 
O
is on line
CE 
.However, the composition on the leftside sends
 B
to
 D
. So
O
is also on line
 BD
. Hence,
O
must be
 F 
. Then wehave
 FD
:
 FB
=
OD
:
OB
=1:6.Similarly, we have
 H 
(
 B
, 2/3)
 
 H 
(
 D
,
2) =
 H 
(
 F 
,
4/3)sends
to
 E 
, so
 FE 
:
 FC 
= 4:3.
 Example 2.
Let
 E 
be inside square
 ABCD
such that
 EAD =
 EDA =
15
°.
Show that
 
 EBC 
is equilateral.
 B ADO E 
 
 Solution.
Let
O
be inside the squaresuch that
 ADO
is equilateral. Then
 R
(
 D
, 30
°
) sends
to
O
and
 R
(
 A
, 30
°
)sends
O
to
 B
. Since
 EDA =
15
°=
 DAE 
, by fact 3,
 R
(
 A
, 30
°
)
 
 R
(
 D
, 30
°
) =
 R
(
 E 
, 60
°
),So
 R
(
 E 
, 60
°
) sends
to
 B
. Therefore,
 EBC 
is equilateral.
 Example 3.
Let
 ABEF 
and
 ACGH 
besquares outside
 ABC 
. Let
be themidpoint of 
 EG
. Show that
MB
=
MC 
and
MB
MC 
.
 A B E  F  H G
 
 Solution.
Since
GC = AC 
and
GCA =
90
°
, so
 R
(
,90
°
) sends
G
to
 A
. Also,
 R
(
 B
,90
°
) sends
 A
to
 E 
. Then
 R
(
 B
, 90
°
)
 
 R
(
,90
°
) sends
G
to
 E 
. By fact 3,
 R
(
 B
, 90
°
)
 
 R
(
, 90
°
) =
 R
(
O
, 180
°
),where
O
satisfies
OCB =
45
°
and
CBO =
45
°.
Since the composition onthe left side sends
G
to
 E 
,
O
must be
. Now
 BOC =
90
°
. So
MB
MC 
.
 Example 4.
On the edges of a convexquadrilateral
 ABCD
, construct theisosceles right triangles
 ABO
1
,
 BCO
2
,
CDO
3
,
 DAO
4
with right angles at
O
1
,
O
2
,
O
3
,
O
4
overlapping with the interior of thequadrilateral. Prove that if 
O
1
=
O
3
, then
O
2
 
= O
4
.
O
3
 D B AO
1
 
 Solution.
Now
 R
(
O
1
, 90
°
) sends
 A
to
 B
,
 R
(
O
2
, 90
°
) sends
 B
to
,
 R
(
O
3
, 90
°
) sends
to
 D
and
 R
(
O
4
, 90
°
) sends
 D
to
 A
. Byfact 3,
 R
(
O
2
, 90
°
)
 
 R
(
O
1
, 90
°
) =
 R
(
O
, 180
°
),where
O
satisfies
OO
1
O
2
=
45
°
and
O
1
O
2
O =
45
°
(so
O
2
OO
1
=
90
°
)
.
 Now the composition on the left sidesends
 A
to
, which implies
O
must be themidpoint of 
 AC 
. Similarly, we have
 R
(
O
4
, 90
°
)
 
 R
(
O
3
, 90
°
) =
 R
(
O
, 180
°
).By fact 3,
O
4
OO
3
=
90
°
and
OO
3
O
4
=
45
°
=
O
3
O
4
O
. Hence,
 R
(
O
, 90
°
) sends
O
4
O
2
 
to
O
3
O
1
. Therefore, if 
O
1
=
O
3
, then
O
2
 
= O
4
.
 Example 4.
(
1999-2000 Iranian MathOlympiad, Round 2
) Two circles intersectin points
 A
and
 B
. A line
that containsthe point
 A
intersects again the circles inthe points
and
 D
, respectively. Let
,
 N 
  be the midpoints of the arcs
 BC 
and
 BD
,which do not contain the point
 A
, and let
 K 
  be the midpoint of the segment
CD
. Showthat
MKN =
90
°
.
 
 B A D K 
 
 Solution.
Since
CAB
+
 BAD
=180
°
, it follows that
 BMC +
 DNB=
180
°.
  Now
R
(
,
 BMC 
) sends
 B
to
,
 R
(
 K 
,180
°
) sends
to
 D
and
 R
(
 N 
,
 DNB
)sends
 D
to
 B
. However, by fact 3,
 R
(
 N 
,
 DNB
)
 R
(
 K 
,180
°
)
R
(
,
 BMC 
)is a translation and since it sends
 B
to
 B
,it must be the identity transformation
 I 
.By fact 4,
MKN =
90
°
.
 Example 6.
Let
 H 
be the orthocenter of 
 ABC 
and lie inside it. Let
 A’, B’,C’ 
be the circumcenters of 
 BHC 
,
CHA
,
 AHB
respectively. Showthat
 AA’, BB’, CC’ 
are concurrent andidentify the point of concurrency.
O A B  H  D E  F  A' C'  B'  A" 
 
 Solution.
For 
 ABC 
, let
O
be itscircumcenter and
G
be its centroid. Letthe reflection across line
 BC 
sends
 A
to
 A”
. Then
 BAC =
 BA”C.
Now
 BHC 
=
 ABH 
+
 BAC 
+
 ACH 
= (90
°
 BAC 
)+
 BAC 
+(90
°
 BAC 
)= 180
°
 BA”C.
 So
 A”
is on the circumcircle of 
 HBC 
. Now the reflection across line
 BC 
 sends
O
to
 A’ 
, the reflection across line
CA
sends
O
to
 B’ 
and the reflectionacross line
 AB
sends
O
to
C’ 
. Let
 D, E, F 
be the midpoints of sides
 BC, CA, AB
 respectively. Then
 H 
(
G
,
1/2) sends
 ABC 
to
 DEF 
and
 H 
(
O
, 2) sends
 DEF 
to
 A’B’C’ 
. Since (
1/2)×2
1, by fact 5,
 H 
(
O
, 2)
 
 H 
(
G
,
1/2) =
 H 
(
 X 
,
1)for some point
 X 
. Since thecomposition on the left side sends
 ABC 
to
 A’B’C’ 
, segments
 AA’, BB’,CC’ 
concur at
 X 
and in fact
 X 
is their common midpoint.
 
Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jul.-Oct. 08 
Page 3
 
Problem Corner 
We welcome readers to submit their solutions to the problems posed belowfor publication consideration. Thesolutions should be preceded by thesolver’s name, home (or email) addressand school affiliation. Please sendsubmissions to
 Dr. Kin Y. Li, Department of Mathematics, The Hong  Kong University of Science &Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
The deadline for sendingsolutions is
October 31, 2008.
 
Problem 306.
Prove that for everyinteger 
n
 
48, every cube can bedecomposed into
n
smaller cubes,where every pair of these small cubesdoes not have any common interior  point and has possibly differentsidelengths.
Problem 307.
Let
 f 
(
 x
) =
a
0
 x
n
 
+
a
1
 x
n
1
+
 
+
a
n
 
 be a polynomial with real coefficientssuch that
a
0
0 and for all real
 x
,
 f 
(
 x
)
 f 
(2
 x
2
) =
 f 
(2
 x
3
+
 x
).Prove that
 f 
(
 x
) has no real root.
Problem 308.
Determine (with proof)the greatest positive integer 
n
>1 suchthat the system of equations
.)()2()1(
22222212
n
 yn x y x y x
++==++=++
L
has an integral solution (
 x,y
1
 , y
2
,
 
,
y
n
).
Problem 309.
In acute triangle
 ABC 
,
 AB
>
 AC 
. Let
 H 
be the foot of the perpendicular from
 A
to
 BC 
and
bethe midpoint of 
 AH 
. Let
 D
be the pointwhere the incircle of 
 ABC 
is tangentto side
 BC 
. Let line
 DM 
intersect theincircle again at
 N 
. Prove that
 BND
 =
CND
.
Problem 310.
(
 Due to Pham VanThuan
) Prove that if 
 p
,
q
are positivereal numbers such that
 p + q
= 2, then3
 p
q
q
 p
+ p
 p
q
q
4.*****************
 Solutions
****************
Problem 301.
Prove that it is possibleto decompose two congruent regular hexagons into a total of six pieces suchthat they can be rearranged to form anequilateral triangle with no piecesoverlapping.
 Solution.
 
G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy
 )
.
 AB D E  F 
 
 A B D E
 
Commended solvers
:
Samuel LilóABDALLA
(ITA-UNESP, São Paulo,Brazil),
Glenier L. BELLO- BURGUET
(I.E.S. Hermanos D`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG Wang Chi
(MagdaleneCollege, University of Cambridge,England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK MathYear 2),
KONG Catherine Wing Yan
(G.T. Ellen Yeung College, Grade 9),
OKin Chit Alex
(G.T. Ellen Yeung College)and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKU Math Year 3).
Problem 302.
Let
 
 
denotes the set of allintegers.
 
Determine (with proof) allfunctions
 f:
 
such that for all
 x
,
 y
in
,we have
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
 y
)) =
 f 
(
 x
)
 
 y
.(
Source:2004 Spanish Math Olympiad 
)
 Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. Hermanos D`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG Wang Chi
(MagdaleneCollege, University of Cambridge,England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK MathYear 2),
G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy),
Ozgur KIRCAK 
 (Jahja Kemal College, Teacher, Skopje,Macedonia)
, NGUYEN Tho Tung
(HighSchool for Gifted Education, Ha NoiUniversity of Education),
PUN YingAnna
(HKU Math Year 3),
SalemMALIKI
Ć
(Sarajevo College, Sarajevo,Bosnia and Herzegovina) and
Fai YUNG
.Assume there is a function
 f 
satisfying
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
 y
)) =
 f 
(
 x
)
 
 y
. (*)If 
 f 
(
a
) =
 f 
(
b
), then
 f 
(
 x
)
a
=
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
a
)) =
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
b
))=
 f 
(
 x
)
b
,which implies
a = b
, i.e.
 f 
is injective.Taking
 y
= 0 in (*),
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(0)) =
 f 
(
 x
). Byinjectivity, we see
 f 
(0) = 0. Taking
 x
=0 in(*), we get
 f 
(
 f 
(
 y
)) =
 y
.
 
(**)Applying
 f 
to both sides of (*) and using(**), we have
 f 
(
 f 
(
 x
)
 
 y
)
= f 
(
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
 y
)) =
 x
 
 f 
(
 y
).Taking
 x
= 0 in this equation, we get
 f 
(
 y
) =
 f 
(
 y
). (***)Using (**), (*) and (***), we get
 f 
(
 x
+
 y
) =
 f 
(
 x
+
 f 
(
 f 
(
 y
)) =
 f 
(
 x
)
 
 f 
(
 y
)=
 f 
(
 x
) +
 f 
(
 y
).Thus,
 f 
satisfies the
Cauchy equation
.By mathematical induction and (***),
 f 
(
n
) =
n f 
(1) for every integer 
n
. Taking
n
=
 f 
(1) in the last equation and
 y
= 1into (**), we get
 f 
(1)
2
=
1. Thisyields a contradiction.
Problem 303.
In base 10, let
 N 
be a positive integer with all digits nonzero.Prove that there do not exist two permutations of the digits of 
 N 
,forming numbers that are different(integral) powers of two.(
Source:2004 Spanish Math Olympiad 
)
 Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG WangChi
(Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK Math Year 2),
G.R.A. 20Problem Solving Group
(Roma, Italy),
 NGUYEN Tho Tung
(High School for Gifted Education, Ha Noi University of Education) and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKUMath Year 3).Assume there exist two permutations of the digits of 
 N 
, forming the numbers 2
 and 2
m
for some positive integers
and
m
 with
>
m
. Then 2
< 10×2
m
. So
 
 
m
+3.Since every number is congruent to itssum of digits (mod 9), we get 2
 
2
m
 (mod 9). Since 2
m
and 9 are relatively prime, we get 2
m
 
1 (mod 9).However,
 
 
m
= 1, 2 or 3, whichcontradicts 2
m
 
1 (mod 9).
Problem 304.
Let
be a set of 100distinct lattice points (i.e. coordinatesare integers) chosen from the
 x-y
 coordinate plane. Prove that there areat most 2025 rectangles whose verticesare in
and whose sides are parallel tothe
 x
-axis or the
 y
-axis.(
Source: 2003 Chinese IMO TeamTraining Test 
)
 Solution 1.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain) and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKU Math Year 3).Let
O
be a point in
. We say arectangle is
 good 
if all its sides are parallel to the
 x
or 
 y
-axis and all itsvertices are in
, one of which is
O
.We claim there are at most 81 goodrectangles. (Once the claim is proved,we see there can only be at most(81×100)/4=2025 desired rectangles.

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