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Volume 13, Number 3 July-October, 2008
Geometric Transformations II
Kin Y. Li
The following are the problems of the2008 IMO held at Madrid in July.
Problem 1.
An acute-angled triangle
ABC
has orthocenter
H
. The circle passing through
H
with centre themidpoint of
BC
intersects the line
BC
at
A
1
and
A
2
. Similarly, the circle passingthrough
H
with centre the midpoint of
CA
intersects the line
CA
at
B
1
and
B
2
,and the circle passing through
H
withthe centre the midpoint of
AB
intersectsthe line
AB
at
1
and
2
. Show that
A
1
,
A
2
,
B
1
,
B
2
,
1
,
2
lie on a circle.
Problem 2.

(a) Prove that
1)1()1()1(
222222
++
z  z  y y x x

for all real numbers
x, y, z,
eachdifferent from 1, and satisfying
xyz
= 1.(b) Prove that equality holds above for infinitely many triples of rationalnumbers
x, y, z,
each different from 1,and satisfying
xyz
= 1.
Problem 3.
Prove that there existinfinitely many positive integers n suchthat
n
2
+1 has a prime divisor which isgreater than 2
n
+
.2
n

(continued on page 4)

Editors:

(CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK

(KO Tsz-Mei)

(LEUNG Tat-Wing)

(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST

(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU
Artist:

(YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU
Acknowledgment:
Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept.,HKUST for general assistance.
On-line:
http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/The editors welcome contributions from all teachers andstudents. With your submission, please include your name,address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for thenext issue is
October 31, 2008
.For individual subscription for the next five issues for the05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressedenvelopes. Send all correspondence to:Dr. Kin-Yin LIDepartment of MathematicsThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyClear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong KongFax: (852) 2358 1643Email:makyli@ust.hk
Below the vector from
X
to
will bedenoted as
XY
. The notation
ABC
=
α
means the ray
BA
after rotated an angle|
α
| (anticlockwise if
α

> 0, clockwise if
α

< 0) will coincide with the ray
BC
.On a plane, a
translation
by a vector v(denoted as
(v)) moves every point
X
to a point
such that
XY
= v. On thecomplex plane
, if the vector vcorresponds to the vector from 0 to
v
,then
(v) has the same effect as thefunction
f
:
given by
f
(
w
)=
w
+
v
. A
homothety
and ratio
(denoted as
H
(
,
)) moves every point
X
to a point
such that
CY
=
CX
. If
corresponds to the complex number
c
in
, then
H
(
,
) has the same effect as
f
(
w
) =
(
w

c
)+
c
=
rw
+ (1
)
c
.A
rotation
by angle
α
(denoted as
R
(
C,
α
)) moves every point
X
to a point
such that
CX = CY
and
XCY =
α
. In
, if
corresponds to thecomplex number
c
, then
R
(
C,
α
) has thesame effect as
f
(
w
) =
e
i
α
(
w

c
) +
c
=
e
i
α
w
+ (1
e
i
α
)
c
.A
reflection
across a line
(denoted as
(
)) moves every point
X
to a point
such that the line
is the perpendicular  bisector of segment
XY
. In
, let
(
)send 0 to
b
. If
b
= 0 and

is the linethrough 0 and
e
i
θ
/2
, then
(
) has thesame effect as.)(
wew f
i
θ
=
If
b
0,then let
b
= |
b
|
e
i
β
,
e
i
θ

=
e
2i
β
and
L
bethe

vertical line through |
b
|/2. In
,
(
L
)sends
w
to
wb
||
. Using that,
(
) is
.)|(|)(
bwewebew f
iii
+==
θ  β  β
We have the following useful facts:
Fact 1.
If
1

2
, then
(
2
)

(
1
) =
(2
A
1
A
2
),where
A
1
is on
1
and
A
2
is on
2
suchthat the length of
A
1
A
2
is the distance
from
1
to
2
.(
Reason
: Say
1
,
2
are vertical linesthrough
A
1
= 0,
A
2
= d
. Then
(
1
),
(
2
)are
ww f
=
)(
1
and
.2)(
2
ww f
+=
So
(
2
)

(
1
) is
( )
,22))((
12
www f  f
+=+=
which is
(2
A
1
A
2
). )
Fact 2.
If
1

2
, then
(
2
)

(
1
) =
R
(
O,
α
),where
1
intersects
2
at
O
and
α
istwice the angle from
1
to
2
in theanticlockwise direction.(
Reason:
Say
O
is the origin,
1
is the
x
-axis. Then
(
1
) and
(
2
) are
ww f
=
)(
1
and
,)(
2
wew f
i
α
=
so
(
2
)

(
1
) is
f
2
(
f
1
(
w
)) =
e
i
α
w
, whichis
R
(
O,
α
). )
Fact 3.
If
α

+
β
is not a multiple of 360°,then
R
(
O
2
,
β
)
R
(
O
1
,
α
) =
R
(
O,
α
+
β
),where
OO
1
O
2
=

α
/2,
O
1
O
2
O
=

β
/2.If
α

+
β
is a multiple of 360°, then
R
(
O
2
,
β
)
R
(
O
1
,
α
) =
(
O
1
O
3
),where
R
(
O
2
,

β
) sends
O
1
to
O
3
.(
Reason
: Say
O
1
is 0,
O
2
is
1. Then
R
(
O
1
,
α
),
R
(
O
2
,
β
) are
f
1
(
w
) =
e
i
α
w
,
f
2
(
w
)=
e
i
β
w
+(
e
i
β
1), so
f
2
(
f
1
(
w
)) =
e
i(
α
+
β
)
w
+(
e
i
β
1). If
e
i(
α
+
β
)
c’
= (
e
i
β
1)/(1
e
i
(
α
+
β
)
) by angle
α
+
β
. We have
,)2/)sin(( )2/sin(
)2/(
α π
β α  β
+=
i
ec

.)2/)sin(( )2/sin( 1
2/
β
β α
i
ec
+=
If
e
i(
α
+
β
)
= 1, this is a translation by
e
i
β
1

=
f
2
(0). )
Fact 4.
If
O
1
,
O
2
,
O
3
are noncollinear,
α
1
,
α
2
,
α
3
> 0,
α
1
+
α
2
+
α
3
=360
°
and
R
(
O
3
,
α
3
)
R
(
O
2
,
α
2
)
R
(
O
1
,

α
1
) =
I
,where
I
is the identity transformation,then
O
3
O
1
O
2
=

α
1
/2,
O
1
O
2
O
3
=

α
2
/2and
O
2
O
3
O
1
=

α
3
/2.(This is just the case
α
3
=360
°
(
α
1
+
α
2
)of fact 3.)

Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jul.-Oct. 08
Page 2

Fact 5.
Let
O
1

O
2
. For
1
2
1,
H
(
O
2
,
2
)
(
O
1
,
1
) =
(
O
,
1
2
)for some
O
on line
O
1
O
2
. For
1
2
= 1,
H
(
O
2
,
2
)
(
O
1
,
1
) =
((1
2
)
O
1
O
2
).(
Reason
: Say
O
1
is 0,
O
2
is
c
. Then
H
(
O
1
,
1
),
H
(
O
2
,
2
) are
f
1
(
w
) =
1
w
,
f
2
(
w
)=
2
w
+(1
2
)
c
, so
f
2
(
f
1
(
w
)) =
1
2
w+
(1
2
)
c
. For
1
2
c’
= (1
2
)
c
/(1
1
2
)and ratio
1
2
. For
1
2
= 1, this is atranslation by (1
2
)
c
. ) Next we will present some examples.
Example 1.
In
ABC
, let
E
be onside
AB
such that
AE
:
EB
=1:2 and
D
be onside
AC
such that
:
DC
= 2:1. Let
F
be the intersection of
BD
and
CE
.Determine
FD
:
FB
and
FE
:
FC
.
A B E  D F

Solution.
We have
H
(
E
,
1/2) sends
B
to
A
and
H
(
, 1/3) sends
A
to
D.
Since(1/3)×(
1/2)
1, by fact 5,
H
(
, 1/3)

H
(
E
,
1/2) =
H
(
O
,
1/6),where the center
O
is on line
CE
.However, the composition on the leftside sends
B
to
D
. So
O
is also on line
BD
. Hence,
O
must be
F
. Then wehave
FD
:
FB
=
OD
:
OB
=1:6.Similarly, we have
H
(
B
, 2/3)

H
(
D
,
2) =
H
(
F
,
4/3)sends
to
E
, so
FE
:
FC
= 4:3.
Example 2.
Let
E
be inside square
ABCD
such that
EDA =
15
°.
Show that

EBC
is equilateral.

Solution.
Let
O
be inside the squaresuch that
is equilateral. Then
R
(
D
, 30
°
) sends
to
O
and
R
(
A
, 30
°
)sends
O
to
B
. Since
EDA =
15
°=
DAE
, by fact 3,
R
(
A
, 30
°
)

R
(
D
, 30
°
) =
R
(
E
, 60
°
),So
R
(
E
, 60
°
) sends
to
B
. Therefore,
EBC
is equilateral.
Example 3.
Let
ABEF
and
ACGH
besquares outside
ABC
. Let
be themidpoint of
EG
. Show that
MB
=
MC
and
MB
MC
.
A B E  F  H G

Solution.
Since
GC = AC
and
GCA =
90
°
, so
R
(
,90
°
) sends
G
to
A
. Also,
R
(
B
,90
°
) sends
A
to
E
. Then
R
(
B
, 90
°
)

R
(
,90
°
) sends
G
to
E
. By fact 3,
R
(
B
, 90
°
)

R
(
, 90
°
) =
R
(
O
, 180
°
),where
O
satisfies
OCB =
45
°
and
CBO =
45
°.
Since the composition onthe left side sends
G
to
E
,
O
must be
. Now
BOC =
90
°
. So
MB
MC
.
Example 4.
On the edges of a convexquadrilateral
ABCD
, construct theisosceles right triangles
ABO
1
,
BCO
2
,
CDO
3
,
DAO
4
with right angles at
O
1
,
O
2
,
O
3
,
O
4
overlapping with the interior of thequadrilateral. Prove that if
O
1
=
O
3
, then
O
2

= O
4
.
O
3
D B AO
1

Solution.
Now
R
(
O
1
, 90
°
) sends
A
to
B
,
R
(
O
2
, 90
°
) sends
B
to
,
R
(
O
3
, 90
°
) sends
to
D
and
R
(
O
4
, 90
°
) sends
D
to
A
. Byfact 3,
R
(
O
2
, 90
°
)

R
(
O
1
, 90
°
) =
R
(
O
, 180
°
),where
O
satisfies
OO
1
O
2
=
45
°
and
O
1
O
2
O =
45
°
(so
O
2
OO
1
=
90
°
)
.
Now the composition on the left sidesends
A
to
, which implies
O
must be themidpoint of
AC
. Similarly, we have
R
(
O
4
, 90
°
)

R
(
O
3
, 90
°
) =
R
(
O
, 180
°
).By fact 3,
O
4
OO
3
=
90
°
and
OO
3
O
4
=
45
°
=
O
3
O
4
O
. Hence,
R
(
O
, 90
°
) sends
O
4
O
2

to
O
3
O
1
. Therefore, if
O
1
=
O
3
, then
O
2

= O
4
.
Example 4.
(
) Two circles intersectin points
A
and
B
. A line
that containsthe point
A
intersects again the circles inthe points
and
D
, respectively. Let
,
N
be the midpoints of the arcs
BC
and
BD
,which do not contain the point
A
, and let
K
be the midpoint of the segment
CD
. Showthat
MKN =
90
°
.

B A D K

Solution.
Since
CAB
+
=180
°
, it follows that
BMC +
DNB=
180
°.
Now
R
(
,
BMC
) sends
B
to
,
R
(
K
,180
°
) sends
to
D
and
R
(
N
,
DNB
)sends
D
to
B
. However, by fact 3,
R
(
N
,
DNB
)
R
(
K
,180
°
)
R
(
,
BMC
)is a translation and since it sends
B
to
B
,it must be the identity transformation
I
.By fact 4,
MKN =
90
°
.
Example 6.
Let
H
be the orthocenter of
ABC
and lie inside it. Let
A’, B’,C’
be the circumcenters of
BHC
,
CHA
,
AHB
respectively. Showthat
AA’, BB’, CC’
are concurrent andidentify the point of concurrency.
O A B  H  D E  F  A' C'  B'  A"

Solution.
For
ABC
, let
O
be itscircumcenter and
G
be its centroid. Letthe reflection across line
BC
sends
A
to
A”
. Then
BAC =
BA”C.
Now
BHC
=
ABH
+
BAC
+
ACH
= (90
°
BAC
)+
BAC
+(90
°
BAC
)= 180
°
BA”C.
So
A”
is on the circumcircle of
HBC
. Now the reflection across line
BC
sends
O
to
A’
, the reflection across line
CA
sends
O
to
B’
and the reflectionacross line
AB
sends
O
to
C’
. Let
D, E, F
be the midpoints of sides
BC, CA, AB
respectively. Then
H
(
G
,
1/2) sends
ABC
to
DEF
and
H
(
O
, 2) sends
DEF
to
A’B’C’
. Since (
1/2)×2
1, by fact 5,
H
(
O
, 2)

H
(
G
,
1/2) =
H
(
X
,
1)for some point
X
. Since thecomposition on the left side sends
ABC
to
A’B’C’
, segments
AA’, BB’,CC’
concur at
X
and in fact
X
is their common midpoint.

Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jul.-Oct. 08
Page 3

Problem Corner
We welcome readers to submit their solutions to the problems posed belowfor publication consideration. Thesolutions should be preceded by thesolver’s name, home (or email) addressand school affiliation. Please sendsubmissions to
Dr. Kin Y. Li, Department of Mathematics, The Hong  Kong University of Science &Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
October 31, 2008.

Problem 306.
Prove that for everyinteger
n

48, every cube can bedecomposed into
n
smaller cubes,where every pair of these small cubesdoes not have any common interior  point and has possibly differentsidelengths.
Problem 307.
Let
f
(
x
) =
a
0
x
n

+
a
1
x
n
1
+

+
a
n

be a polynomial with real coefficientssuch that
a
0
0 and for all real
x
,
f
(
x
)
f
(2
x
2
) =
f
(2
x
3
+
x
).Prove that
f
(
x
) has no real root.
Problem 308.
Determine (with proof)the greatest positive integer
n
>1 suchthat the system of equations
.)()2()1(
22222212
n
yn x y x y x
++==++=++
L
has an integral solution (
x,y
1
, y
2
,

,
y
n
).
Problem 309.
In acute triangle
ABC
,
AB
>
AC
. Let
H
be the foot of the perpendicular from
A
to
BC
and
bethe midpoint of
AH
. Let
D
be the pointwhere the incircle of
ABC
is tangentto side
BC
. Let line
DM
intersect theincircle again at
N
. Prove that
BND
=
CND
.
Problem 310.
(
Due to Pham VanThuan
) Prove that if
p
,
q
are positivereal numbers such that
p + q
= 2, then3
p
q
q
p
+ p
p
q
q
4.*****************
Solutions
****************
Problem 301.
Prove that it is possibleto decompose two congruent regular hexagons into a total of six pieces suchthat they can be rearranged to form anequilateral triangle with no piecesoverlapping.
Solution.

G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy
)
.
AB D E  F

A B D E

Commended solvers
:
Samuel LilóABDALLA
(ITA-UNESP, São Paulo,Brazil),
Glenier L. BELLO- BURGUET
(I.E.S. Hermanos D`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG Wang Chi
(MagdaleneCollege, University of Cambridge,England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK MathYear 2),
KONG Catherine Wing Yan
(G.T. Ellen Yeung College, Grade 9),
OKin Chit Alex
(G.T. Ellen Yeung College)and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKU Math Year 3).
Problem 302.
Let

denotes the set of allintegers.

Determine (with proof) allfunctions
f:

such that for all
x
,
y
in
,we have
f
(
x
+
f
(
y
)) =
f
(
x
)

y
.(
)
Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. Hermanos D`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG Wang Chi
(MagdaleneCollege, University of Cambridge,England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK MathYear 2),
G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy),
Ozgur KIRCAK
(Jahja Kemal College, Teacher, Skopje,Macedonia)
, NGUYEN Tho Tung
(HighSchool for Gifted Education, Ha NoiUniversity of Education),
PUN YingAnna
(HKU Math Year 3),
SalemMALIKI
Ć
(Sarajevo College, Sarajevo,Bosnia and Herzegovina) and
Fai YUNG
.Assume there is a function
f
satisfying
f
(
x
+
f
(
y
)) =
f
(
x
)

y
. (*)If
f
(
a
) =
f
(
b
), then
f
(
x
)
a
=
f
(
x
+
f
(
a
)) =
f
(
x
+
f
(
b
))=
f
(
x
)
b
,which implies
a = b
, i.e.
f
is injective.Taking
y
= 0 in (*),
f
(
x
+
f
(0)) =
f
(
x
). Byinjectivity, we see
f
(0) = 0. Taking
x
=0 in(*), we get
f
(
f
(
y
)) =
y
.

(**)Applying
f
to both sides of (*) and using(**), we have
f
(
f
(
x
)

y
)
= f
(
f
(
x
+
f
(
y
)) =
x

f
(
y
).Taking
x
= 0 in this equation, we get
f
(
y
) =
f
(
y
). (***)Using (**), (*) and (***), we get
f
(
x
+
y
) =
f
(
x
+
f
(
f
(
y
)) =
f
(
x
)

f
(
y
)=
f
(
x
) +
f
(
y
).Thus,
f
satisfies the
Cauchy equation
.By mathematical induction and (***),
f
(
n
) =
n f
(1) for every integer
n
. Taking
n
=
f
(1) in the last equation and
y
= 1into (**), we get
f
(1)
2
=
Problem 303.
In base 10, let
N
be a positive integer with all digits nonzero.Prove that there do not exist two permutations of the digits of
N
,forming numbers that are different(integral) powers of two.(
)
Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
CHEUNG WangChi
(Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, England),
Victor FONG
(CUHK Math Year 2),
G.R.A. 20Problem Solving Group
(Roma, Italy),
NGUYEN Tho Tung
(High School for Gifted Education, Ha Noi University of Education) and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKUMath Year 3).Assume there exist two permutations of the digits of
N
, forming the numbers 2
and 2
m
for some positive integers
and
m
with
>
m
. Then 2
< 10×2
m
. So

m
+3.Since every number is congruent to itssum of digits (mod 9), we get 2

2
m
(mod 9). Since 2
m
and 9 are relatively prime, we get 2
m

1 (mod 9).However,

m
= 1, 2 or 3, whichcontradicts 2
m

1 (mod 9).
Problem 304.
Let
be a set of 100distinct lattice points (i.e. coordinatesare integers) chosen from the
x-y
coordinate plane. Prove that there areat most 2025 rectangles whose verticesare in
and whose sides are parallel tothe
x
-axis or the
y
-axis.(
Source: 2003 Chinese IMO TeamTraining Test
)
Solution 1.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain) and
PUN Ying Anna
(HKU Math Year 3).Let
O
be a point in
. We say arectangle is
good
if all its sides are parallel to the
x
or
y
-axis and all itsvertices are in
, one of which is
O
.We claim there are at most 81 goodrectangles. (Once the claim is proved,we see there can only be at most(81×100)/4=2025 desired rectangles.