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Model -Fare Seminar Report

Model -Fare Seminar Report

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Published by: kssiyas on Dec 15, 2011
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04/21/2012

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Seminar Report 2011 Third Generation Solid StateDrives
1. INTRODUCTION
The explosion of flash memory technology has dramatically increased storagecapacity and decreased the cost of non-volatile semiconductor memory. The technology hasfueled the proliferation of USB flash drives and is now poised to replace magnetic hard disksin some applications. A solid state drive (SSD) is a non-volatile memory system thatemulates a magnetic hard disk drive (HDD). SSDs do not contain any moving parts,however, and depend on flash memory chips to store data. With proper design, an SSD isable to provide high data transfer rates, low access time, improved tolerance to shock andvibration, and reduced power consumption. For some applications, the improved performance and durability outweigh the higher cost of an SSD relative to an HDD.Using flash memory as a hard disk replacement is not without challenges. The nano-scale of the memory cell is pushing the limits of semiconductor physics. Extremely thininsulating glass layers are necessary for proper operation of the memory cells. These layersare subjected to stressful temperatures and voltages, and their insulating propertiesdeteriorate over time. Quite simply, flash memory can wear out. Fortunately, the wear-out physics are well understood and data management strategies are used to compensate for thelimited lifetime of flash memory.Flash memory was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba in1984. The name "flash" was suggested because the process of erasing the memory contentsreminded him of the flash of a camera. Flash memory chips store data in a large array of floating gate metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Silicon wafers aremanufactured with microscopic transistor dimension, now approaching 40 nanometers.Intel Corporation introduces its highly anticipated third-generation solid-state drive(SSD) the Intel Solid-State Drive 320 Series. Based on its industry-leading 25-nanometer (nm) NAND flash memory, the Intel SSD 320 replaces and builds on its high-performingIntel X25-M SATA SSD. Delivering more performance and uniquely architected reliabilityfeatures, the new Intel SSD 320 offers new higher capacity models, while taking advantageof cost benefits from its 25nm process with an up to 30 percent price reduction over itscurrent generation.
Dept. of Electronics and Communication 1 MET’S school of Engg, Mala
 
Seminar Report 2011 Third Generation Solid StateDrives
2. FLOATING GATE FLASH MEMORY CELLS
SSDs mainly depend on flash memory chips to store data. The name "flash" wassuggested because the process of erasing the memory contents reminded him of the flash of acamera. Flash memory chips store data in a large array of floating gate metal–oxide– semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Silicon wafers are manufactured with microscopictransistor dimension, now approaching 40 nanometers. In this flash memory thin insulatingglass layers are necessary for proper operation of the memory cells. These layers aresubjected to stressful temperatures and voltages, and their insulating properties deteriorateover time. Quite simply, flash memory can wear out.A floating gate memory cell is a type of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Silicon forms the base layer, or substrate, of the transistor array. Areas of thesilicon are masked off and infused with different types of impurities in a process calleddoping. Impurities are carefully added to adjust the electrical properties of the silicon. Someimpurities, for example phosphorous, create an excess of electrons in the silicon lattice.Other impurities, for example boron, create an absence of electrons in the lattice. Theimpurity levels and the proximity of the doped regions are set out in a lithographicmanufacturing process. In addition to doped silicon regions, layers of insulating silicondioxide glass (SiO2) and conducting layers of polycrystalline silicon and aluminum aredeposited to complete the MOSFET structure.MOS transistors work by forming an electrically conductive channel between the sourceand drain terminals. When a voltage is applied to the control gate, an electric field causes athin negatively charged channel to form at the boundary of the SiO2 and between the sourceand drain regions. When the N-channel is present, electricity is easily conducted from thesource to the drain terminals. When the control voltage is removed, the N-channel disappearsand no conduction takes place. The MOSFET operates like a switch, either in the on or off state..
Dept. of Electronics and Communication 2 MET’S school of Engg, Mala
 
Seminar Report 2011 Third Generation Solid StateDrives
Figure 1 : A cross sectional depiction of a floating gate MOSFET memory cell
In addition to the control gate, there is a secondary floating gate which is not electricallyconnected to the rest of the transistor. The voltage at the control gate required for N-channelformation can be changed by modifying the charge stored on the floating gate. Even thoughthere is no electrical connection to the floating gate, electric charge can be put in to and takenoff of the floating gate. A quantum physical process called Fowler-Nordheim tunnelingcoaxes electrons through the insulation between the floating gate and the P-well. Whenelectric charge is removed from the floating gate, the cell is considered in an erased state.When electric charge is added to the floating gate, the cell is considered in the programmedstate. A charge that has been added to the floating gate will remain for a long period of time.It is this process of adding, removing and storing electric charge on the floating gate thatturns the MOSFET into a memory cell.
Dept. of Electronics and Communication 3 MET’S school of Engg, Mala

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