egetation Cover:Refers to howmuch vegetationthere are near theriver. The more vegetation thereare, more rainwater
the ground andmore rain is interceptedby plants, thus lessersurface runoff, leading tolesser volume.
limate: Refers tothe rainfall andtemperature of anarea for a longperiod of time (e.g.30 years)Distinct wet and dryclimate
volume of riverdrops.Dry: Low volume of waterthroughout the year.Hot and Wet: High volumeof water.
rainage Basin:Refers to the sizeof the river systemthat collectsrainwater. Itcomprises of steam and rivers. The bigger the drainagebasin, the larger thesurface area, thus thevolume of the riverincreases.
Extra: Type of Soil
.The more porous the soil,the more water absorbedinto it, thus less surfacerunoff and thus leads tolower volume.O LevelQuestions1.Why do some rivers have a greatervolume than others? [5m]
Chapter 3 .3 : River Processes
Chapter Outline: Processes of a river: Erosion(CASH), Transportation (SSST) and Deposition
is the wearing down of banks andbed of a river and removal of the erodedmaterials by the action of gravity andmoving water.a.In the middle course, lateral erosionbecomes more prominent as the speedof flow increases, leading to greaterdischarge and thus a much bigger,deeper and higher speed of flow.b.A river can erode materials in 4 ways:
olution (Corrosion), and
, also known as This widens andabrasion, is an erosionalprocess where the riveruses its load (rock) toscrap and grind againstthe channel’s walls andbed, wearing them down.Agent: Rock Fragmentsdeepens the riverchannel as morerocks are worndown and carriedaway by the river.
is the processwhereby rock fragmentscarried by the water
knock against each other
It does not affect thebed/bank, only size of river load.
Agent: Rock fragments This leads to thebreaking down of rock fragments intosmaller pieces,causing them tobecome smootherand rounded in theprocess.
is the processwhereby the water in theriver reacts chemicallywith the minerals in therocks.Agent: Acidic WaterA solution isformed. Forinstance, limestonedissolves whenwater contains CO
refersto the action of flowingwater that hits against theriver banks and river bed.Agent: Fast – flowingwater The water enterscracks and breaksloose pieces of rock. Thefragments are thencarried down bythe river.
N.B. Agent: The object that causes theprocess to occur.2.
Rivers transport their load in several waysdepending on the size of the particles in theloads, and the speed and volume of flow.River load can be transported by:a.Traction,b.Saltation,c.Suspension, ord.Solution.River
Occurs when there are largeboulders that are too heavy to belifted up by the water in the river,causing them to roll and slidealong the river bed.E.g. Pebbles. (lots of energyrequired)
Occurs when larger particles suchas gravel are part of the riverCopyright © 2010. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced withoutpermission from the author.