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Digital Image Processing (Image Restoration)

Digital Image Processing (Image Restoration)

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Published by MATHANKUMAR.S



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Published by: MATHANKUMAR.S on Dec 17, 2011
Copyright:Public Domain


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Unit IV : Image RestorationTwo mark Questions
1.What is image restoration?
Restoration is a process of reconstructing or recovering animage that has been degraded by using a priori knowledge of thedegradation phenomenon. Thus restoration techniques areoriented towards modeling the degradation and applying theinverse process in order to recover the original image.
Restoration attempts to reconstruct or recover animage that has been degraded by using a clear knowledgeof the degrading phenomenon.
2.What is meant by unconstrained restoration?
In the absence of any knowledge about the noise ‘n’, ameaningful criterion function is to seek an f^ such that H f^approximates of in a least square sense by assuming the noiseterm is as small as possible.It is also known as least square error approach.
n = g-Hf 
 To estimate the original image f^, noise n has to beminimized and
f^ = g/H
Where,H = system operator.f^ = estimated input image.g = degraded image.
3.What is meant by constrained restoration?
It is also known as maximum square error approach n = g-Hf. Toestimate the original image f^, noise n has to be maximized andf^ = g/H.
4.What is inverse filtering?
 The simplest approach to restoration is direct inverse filtering,an estimate F^(u,v) of thetransform of the original image simplyby dividing the transform of the degraded image G^(u,v) by thedegradation function.
F^ (u,v) = G^(u,v)/H(u,v)
Inverse filtering is the process of recovering theinput of the system from its output.
5.What is interactive restoration?
In general, iterative restoration refers to any technique thatattempts to minimize a function of the form
using anupdating rule for the partially restored image.
6.What is a pattern?
Pattern is a quantitative or structural description of an objector some other entity of interest in an image. It is formed by oneor more descriptors.
7.What is a pattern classifier?
It is a family of patterns that share some commonproperties. Pattern classes are denoted as w
………, w
,where M is the number of classes.
8.What are optimal statistical classifiers?
In most of the fields measuring and interpreting of physicalevents, probability considerations are dealt with and it hasbecome much important in pattern recognition because of therandomness under which pattern classes normally aregenerated. It is possible to derive a classification approach that isoptimal in the sense that, on average, its use yields the lowestprobability of committing classification errors.
9.Give the mathematical form of the Bayes decision function.
10.What are artificial neural networks?11.What is a multilayer feedforward neural network?
It consists of layer of structurally identical computing nodes(neurons) arranged so that the output of every neurons in onelayer feeds into the input of every neuron in next layer. Thenumber of neurons in the first layer, called A, is
=n,the dimensionality of the input pattern vectors. The number of neurons in the output layer, called layer Q, is denoted
Thenumber of 
equals w, the number of pattern classes that theneural networks has been trained to recognize. The networkrecognize a pattern vector
as belonging to classes if the i
output of the network is “high” while all other outputs are “low”.
12.What is meant by “training” in artificial neural network?
Set weights to minimize Levenberg-Marquad Algorithm (multi-dim steepest descent). Training is very expensivecomputationally. If there are x input nodes, ‘t’ output nodes, and‘p’ hidden nodes, then the weights =(x+t)p.
13.What is the concept behind algebraic approach torestoration?
 The concept of algebraic approach is to estimate the originalimage whichminimizes a predefined criterion of performances.

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