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The Crisis of Democratic Order

The Crisis of Democratic Order

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Published by Ramita Udayashankar
Politics in India Since Independence, Class XII Political Science
Politics in India Since Independence, Class XII Political Science

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Published by: Ramita Udayashankar on Dec 17, 2011
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08/08/2014

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D~szbcn Dfh Ek`fg Ifi Sbg`f ka z`n Fiif`fofj @bh` ck~rz |fssnj f d~jhengz jncifrbghBgjbrf Hfgj`b(s ninczbkg zk z`n Ikm sfo`f fs bgqfibj'
@kx efg szfzns frn faancznj o Gfpfibzn Qbkingcn;
8> jbszrbczs bg 2 szfzns frn faancznj o Gfpfibzn Qbkingcn'
X`k xfs z`n ak~gjnr ka C\B Efrpbsz – Ingbgbsz";
C`fr~ Efd~ejfr xfs z`n ak~gjnr ka C\B Efrpbsz – Ingbgbsz"'
X`bc` sikhfg xfs hbqng o J'M' Ofrkkf`;
J'M' Ofrkkf`) z`n |rnsbjngz ka Ckghrnss bg 628: hfqn f sikhfg gfenj Bgjbrfbs Bgjbf) Bgjbf bs Bgjbrf'
X`fz jncbsbkg xfs hbqng o z`n S~|rnen Ck~rz bg Mnsfqfgfgjf O`frzb cfsn;
Z`n S~|rnen Ck~rz hfqn z`n jncbsbkg z`fz z`nrn frn sken ofsbc anfz~rns ka z`nCkgszbz~zbkg fgj z`n \fribfengz cfggkz fengj z`ksn anfz~rns'
X`k xfs z`n infjnr ka z`n 628: _fbixf szrbmn;
Hnkrhn Anrgfgjnt xfs z`n infjnr ka z`n 628: _fbixf szrbmn'
Engzbkg z`n rnfskg j~n zk x`bc` nenrhngc xfs jncifrnj o z`n z`ng BgjbrfHfgj`b hkqnrgengz;
Z`n Bgjbrf Hfgj`b hkqnrgengz engzbkgnj bgznrgfi jbsz~rofgcn fs z`n rnfskg akr jncifrbgh nenrhngc'
Engzbkg z`n efbg ckgszbz~ngzs ka Dfgfzf \frz;
Z`n efbg ckgszbz~ngzs ka Dfgzf |frz xnrn4
Ckghrnss <"
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X`fz xfs z`n sikhfg ka Ob`fr Ekqnengz bg 628:;
Z`n sikhfg ka Ob`fr Ekqnengz bg 628: xfs ‐Sfe|kkrgf Mrfgzb fo gfrf `fb) o`fqbbzb`fs `fefrf `fb‒'
X`fz xfs z`n sikhfg ckbgnj o J'M' Ofrkkf` x`k xfs z`n |rnsbjngz ka Ckghrnssbg 628:;
J'M' Ofrkkf`) z`n |rnsbjngz ka Ckghrnss bg 628:) hfqn f sikhfg ’Bgjbrf bs Bgjbf) Bgjbf bsBgjbrf―'
X`fz jncbsbkg xfs hbqng o z`n S~|rnen Ck~rz bg Mnsfqngngjf O`frzb cfsn;
Z`n S~|rnen Ck~rz hfqn z`n jncbsbkg z`fz z`nrn frn sken ofsbc anfz~rns ka z`nCkgszbz~zbkg x`bc` cfggkz on fengj o z`n \fribfengz fz fg cksz'
X`k jncifrnj Bgjbrf Hfgj`b(s ninczbkg zk z`n ikm Sfm`f bgqfibj;
 
D~szbcn Dfh Ek`fg Ifi Sbg`f ka z`n Fiif`fofj @bh` ck~rz |fssnj f d~jhengz jncifrbghBgjbrf Hfgj`b(s ninczbkg zk z`n Ikm Sfo`f fs bgqfibj'
X`k jncifrnj Bgjbrf Hfgj`b(s ninczbkg zk z`n ikm Sfm`f bgqfibj;
D~szbcn Dfh Ek`fg Ifi Sbg`f ka z`n Fiif`fofj @bh` ck~rz |fssnj f d~jhengz jncifrbghBgjbrf Hfgj`b(s ninczbkg zk z`n Ikm Sfo`f fs bgqfibj'
Gfen z`n zrnfzbns sbhgnj x`ng Bgjbrf Hfgj`b xfs z`n \rben ebgbsznr'
S`beif \fcz xbz` \fmbszfg fgj Bgjk%Skqbnz Zrnfz ka \nfcn) Arbngjs`b| fgjCkk|nrfzbkg xbz` Skqbnz ^gbkg xnrn z`n zrnfzbns sbhgnj ~gjnr z`n |rben Ebgbsznrs`b| ka Ers Bgjbrf Hfgj`b'
? efrmsJnabgn \rnqngzbqn Jnzngzbkg'
Bz bs z`n Fcz bg x`bc` |nk|in frn frrnsznj fgj jnzfbgnj gkz oncf~sn z`n `fqn ckeebzznjfg kaangcn o~z kg z`n f||rn`ngsbkg z`fz z`n ef ckeebz fg kaangcn' ^gjnr  |rnqngzbqn jnzngzbkg fcz) z`n hkqnrgengz efjn ifrhn scfin frrnszs j~rbgh z`nNenrhngc'
X`fz jk k~ enfg o Gfpfiofrb ekqnengz;
Bg 6218) z`nrn xfs f |nfsfgz ~|rbsbgh bg z`n Gfpfiofrb |kibcn szfzbkg frnfka Jfrdnnibgh `biis' Z`n ikcfi cfjrns ka z`n C\B Efrpbsz" inj z`bs ~|rbsbgh' Z`n |nfsfgzekqnengz szfrznj arke z`n Gfpfiofrb szfzbkg frnf fgj s|rnfj zk snqnrfi szfznska Bgjbf fgj cfen zk on rnanrrnj fs z`n Gfpfiofrb ekqnengz' Z`n Gfpfibzn ekqnengz~snj akrcn zk sgfzc` ifgj arke z`n rbc` ifgj kxgnrs fgj hbqn bz zk z`n |kkr fgj z`nifgjinss'
Szfzn z`n rnfskgs x` \rnsbjngz _~in xfs be|ksnj bg H~dfrfz bg 628:;
J~n zk ofj nckgkebc ckgjbzbkgs bg z`n ck~gzr) z`n sz~jngzs bg H~dfrfz szfrznj fgfhbzfzbkg fhfbgsz z`n rbsbgh |rbcns ka akkj hrfbgs) ckkmbgh kbi fgj kz`nr nssngzbfickeekjbzbns fgj fhfbgsz ckrr~|zbkg bg `bh` |ifcns bg z`n nfr 628:'
Z`n sz~jngzs( |rkznsz xfs ifznr dkbgnj o efdkr k||ksbzbkg |frzbns x`bc` inj zk z`nbe|ksbzbkg ka |rnsbjngz(s r~in bg H~dfrfz'
X` xfs \rnsbjngz‒s _~in be|ksnj bg H~dfrfz bg 628:;
J~n zk z`n ofj nckgkebc ckgjbzbkg bg z`n ck~gzr) z`n sz~jngzs bg H~dfrfz szfrznj fgfhbzfzbkg bg z`n nfr 628: fhfbgsz z`n rbsbgh |rbcns ka akkj) hrk~gj g~z kbi fgj kz`nr nssngzbfi ckeekjbzbns fgj ckrr~|zbkg fz `bh`nr |ifcns' Z`n sz~jngz‒s |rkznsz xfs ifznr  dkbgnj o efdkr k||ksbzbkg |frzbns x`bc` inj zk z`n be|ksbzbkg ka \rnsbjngz _~in bgH~dfrfz'
X`fz jk k~ enfg o Gfpfibzn ekqnengz;
Bg 6218) z`nrn xfs f |nfsfgz ~|rbsbgh bg z`n Gfpfiofrb |kibcn szfzbkg frnf ka Jfrdnnibgh`biis' Z`n ikcfi cfjrns ka z`n C\B Efrpbsz" inj zk z`bs ~|rbsbgh' Z`n |nfsfgz ekqnengzszfrznj arke z`n Gfpfiofrb frnf ka Jfrdnnibgh `biis gnfr z`n zkxg ka Sbibh~rb s|rnfj zksnqnrfi szfzns ka Bgjbf fgj cfen zk on rnanrrnj fs z`n Gfpfiofrb ekqnengz'Z`n Gfpfibzn ekqnengz ~snj akrcn zk sgfzc` ifgj arke z`n rbc` ifgj kxgnrs fgj hfqn bzzk z`n |kkr fgj z`n ifgjinss'
: efrmsJnscrbon z`n rkin ka Dfb \rfmfs` Gfrffg bg z`n Ob`fr ekqnengz bg 628:;
 
Bg Efrc` 628: sz~jngzs ka Ob`fr |rkznsznj fhfbgsz rbsbgh |rbcn) akkj scfrcbz)~gne|ikengz fgj ckrr~|zbkg' Z`n bgqbznj Dfb \rfmfs` Gfrffg zk infj z`n ekqnengz'@n fccn|znj z`nbr bgqbzfzbkg kg z`n hrk~gj z`fz bz xk~ij on f gkg qbkingz ekqnengz fgjxbii gkz ibebz bzsnia zk Ob`fr' @n jnefgjnj akr z`n jbsebssfi ka z`n Ckghrnsshkqnrgengz fgj hfqn f cfii akr zkzfi rnqki~zbkg bg z`n skcbfi) nckgkebc fgj |kibzbcfis|`nrns bg krjnr zk nszfoibs` x`fz `n ckgsbjnrnj zk on f zr~n jnekcrfc' F snrbns ka  ofgj`s) hn`rfks fgj szrbmns xnrn krhfgbtnj bg Ob`fr' @n inj f |nk|in‒s efrc` zk z`n |fribfengz bg 628> x`bc` bs sfbj zk on z`n ifrhnsz rfiibns nqnr `nij bg cf|bzfi'
Zrfcn z`n rnfskgs on`bgj z`n hrkxz` ka Gfpfibzn ekqnengz4
 Gfpfibzn ekqnengz hrnx bgszfzns x`bc` xnrn qnr ofcmxfrj fgj bg`fobznj oFjbqfsbs'
Bg z`nsn frnfs) z`n s`frn crk||nrs) ~gjnr%zngfgzs fgj sefii c~izbqfzkrs xnrn jngbnjz`nbr ofsbc rbh`zs xbz` rnhfrj zk snc~rbz ka zng~rn kr z`nbr s`frn bg |rkj~cn) |fengz ka afbr xfhns nzc'
Akrcnj ifok~r) np|rk|rbfzbkg ka rnsk~rcns o k~zsbjnrs fgj np|ikbzfzbkg o ekgningjnrs xnrn fisk ckeekg bg z`nsn frnfs'Fii z`bs inj zk z`n hrkxz` ka Gfpfibzn ekqnengz' Gfpfibzn ekqnengz bs gkx fczbqn bg8> jbszrbczs bg gbgn szfzns'
Jnscrbon z`n rkin ka Dfb \rfmfs` Gfrffg bg Ob`fr ekqnengz bg 628:'
Bg Efrc` 628:) sz~jngzs ka Ob`fr |rkznsznj fhfbgsz rbsbgh |rbcns) akkj scfrcbz)~gne|ikengz fgj ckrr~|zbkg' Z`n bgqbznj Dfb \rfmfs` Gfrffg zk infj z`n ekqnengz'@n fccn|znj z`nbr bgqbzfzbkg kg z`n hrk~gjs z`fz bz xk~ij on f gkg qbkingz ekqnengzfgj xbii gkz ibebz bzsnia zk Ob`fr' @n jnefgjnj akr z`n jbsebssfi ka z`n Ckghrnsshkqnrgengz fgj hfqn f cfii akr zkzfi rnqki~zbkg bg z`n skcbfi) nckgkebc fgj |kibzbcfis|`nrns bg krjnr zk nszfoibs` x`fz `n ckgsbjnrnj zk on zr~n jnekcrfc' F snrbns ka  ofgj`s) h`nrfks fgj szrbmns xnrn krhfgbsnj bg Ob`fr' @n inj f |nk|in‒s efrc` zk z`n\fribfengz bg 628> x`bc` bs sfbj zk on z`n ifrhnsz rfiibns nqnr `nij bg z`n cf|bzfi'
X`k xfs C`fr~ Efd~ejfr;
C`fr~ Efd~ejfr xfs fg Bgjbfg Efkbsz rnqki~zbkgfr okrg bg 6260 bg Sbibh~rb)Xnsz Onghfi' @n xfs f ckee~gbsz rnqki~zbkgfr fgj z`n infjnr ka z`n Gfpfiofrb~|rbsbgh' @n dkbgnj z`n Zno`fhf ekqnengz bg 62:1' @n xfs be|rbskgnj bg 621? fgjkg D~i 61) 628? `n inaz z`n C\B fgj ak~gjnj z`n Ckee~gbsz \frz ka Bgjbf Efrpbsz – Ingbgbsz"' @n onibnqnj bg z`n Efkbsz |fz` ka |nfsfgz rnoniibkg fgj jnangjnjrnqki~zbkgfr qbkingcn' Efd~efjfr jbnj bg |kibcn c~szkj fz z`n Fib|krn Cngzrfi Dfbikg D~i ?0) 628?'
X` xfs S`f` ckeebssbkg f||kbgznj fgj x`fz xnrn bzs abgjbghs;
Z`n Dfgfzf |frz hkqnrgengz f||kbgznj f ckeebssbkg ka bgv~br `nfjnj o D~szbcn D'C'S`f`' @n xfs z`n rnzbrnj C`bna d~szbcn ka Bgjbf fgj kg `bs gfen z`bs ckeebssbkg xfsgfenj fs S`f` Ckeebssbkg' Z`bs ckeebssbkg xfs snz ~| zk bgv~brn bgzk snqnrfi fs|nczska 
fiinhfzbkgs ka fo~sn ka f~z`krbz)
npcnssns fgj efi|rfczbcns ckeebzznj fgj fczbkgszfmng bg z`n xfmn ka 
Nenrhngc
 |rkcifbenj kg?> D~gn) 628>' Z`n Ckeebssbkgnpfebgnj qfrbk~s mbgjs ka nqbjngcn fgj cfiinj sckrns ka xbzgnssns zk hbqn znszbekgbns'Z`nsn bgci~jnj Bgjbrf Hfgj`b o~z s`n rna~snj zk rn|i zk fg v~nszbkgs ka z`nckeebssbkg' Z`n Ckeebssbkg hfqn bzs abgjbghs) kosnrqfzbkgs fgj rnckeengjfzbkgs bgz`n akre ka zxk bgznrbe rn|krzs fgj abgfi rn|krz' Z`n rn|krzs xnrn fisk zfoinj bg z`n zxk@k~sns ka \fribfengz x`bc` fccn|znj z`n rnckeengjfzbkgs'

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