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Production & Operations Management Set-1

Production & Operations Management Set-1

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Published by Vivek Sahani

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Published by: Vivek Sahani on Dec 18, 2011
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MB 0044 Production & Operations Management Assignment Set-1
Q-1 Explain the brief origins of Just In Time. Explain how JIT is implemented.
Brief Origins of Just-In-Time (JIT) :
Just In Time (JIT) manufacturing is a process by which companies
don’t keep lots of excess inventory; instead, they m
anufacture a product as an order comes in. It is a managementphilosophy of continuous and forced problem solving.
The objective of JIT manufacturing system is to :
waste that is, minimise the amount of equipment, materials, parts, spares and worker’s time, which
adds a great value to the product.
Increase productivity.JIT means making what the market demands when it is in need. It is the most popular systems that incorporate thegenetic elements of lean system. Lean production supplies customers with exactly what the customer wants. When theconsumer wants, without waste, through continuous improvementDeploying JIT results in decrease of inventories and increase the overall efficiencies. Decreasing inventory allows reducingwastes which in turn results in saving lots of money. There are many advantage of JIT.. Just In Time,
Increases the work productivity
Reducing operating costs
Improves performance and throughput
Improves quality
Improves deliveries
Increases flexibility and innovativenessFor industrial organisations to remain competitive, cost efficiencies have become compulsory. JIT helps in this process. It isextended to the shop floor and also the inventory systems if the vendors. JIT has been extended to mean continuousimprovement. These principles are being applied to the fields of Engineering, Purchasing, Accounting and Data Processing.However, for organisations to completely implements JIT manufacturing system, they need to have a proper commitmentalong with the following basic facilities--Proper Material -Quality -Equipment and people involvement.
Implementation of JIT:
JIT, Total Quality Management and other developmental measures, are possible onlywith top management commitment and a learning culture in the organisation. The main handicap to any programme is theresistance by the organisational members, even at the top, to make changes. This resistance may take the form of non-cooperation and may enlarge to become sabotage. These usually show u at the implementation stage. So, communicationof the goals is to be realised and the objectives of each team are to be framed effectively, initially, a milestone chart helpsin establishing various steps to be taken and correcting the activities as the process is on. This is the best way of ensuringsusses. It is well to remind you at this stage that JIT is not a destination, but an ongoing continuous improvementprogramme in the process of achieving TQM.
Q-2 Bring out the historical background of Value Engineering. Elucidate three companies which have incorporated VEwith brief explanation.
A-2 Historical Background of Value Engineering (VE)
Value Engineering is a methodology by which we try to find substitutes for a production or an operation.The concept of 
value engineering originated
during the
Second World War.
It was developed by the General ElectricCorporation (GEC). Value Engineering has gained
due to its potential for gaining high Return on Investments
. This methodology widely used in business Re-engineering, Government Projects, Automakers, Transportation andDistribution, industrial Equipment, Construction, Assembling and Machining Processes, Health Care and EnvironmentalEngineering and many others. Value engineering (VE) process calls for a deep study of a product and the purpose for suchit is used, such as the raw material used; the processes of transportation; the equipments needed, and many others. It alsoquestions whether what is being used is the most appropriate and economical. The applies to all aspects of the product.
Incorporated Value Engineering (VE)
T.V. Sundaram lyenger & Sons (TVS) Limited is one of the largest automobiles distribution companies inIndia.
During the mid of 1940s to 1960s, TVS based in Madurai was ranked as the best bus transportation system inIndia. It could manage to run the fleets for about 96% of the time.TVS used the VE approach to restore the mobility of buses that had broken down. They stocked their garage withsome critical assemblies of a bus. Wherever a part or an assembly failed of a bus, they replaced it immediatelywith a new one, thus restoring mobility within a couple of hours.When compared to the traditional method, this approach has gained much more benefits to the company,reduce cost, efficient, quicker, and competitive.
The concept of value engineering originated in 1947 in General Electricals Corporation(GEC) when asubstitute for asbestos for flooring had to be found. Specialised dealers co
uld provide an qually good ‘material’ at
a lesser price.Initially, the particulars ware the people in charge of purchasing who tried to locate substitute material whichwould be equally good, If not better, at a lower price. This is the first and basic approach to value engineering. Asthe concept percolated to the manufacturing departments, engineers applied the same principles and foundthat, they could use alternate materials which were cheaper giving the same performance. It was also found thatdimensions and tolerance could be altered without affecting the performance of the part or the product. Theinvestigations look them on the path of eliminating some operations. The focus was on the value of each bit of material, each operation. This approach led to the design stage.
Modi Xerox designed the Value Engineered low cost copier 1025 ST, which uses a single tray. Theadvantage of new design is that it is easy to operate and the cost is also very low.
Q-3 Explain the key elements of Quantitative Modelling. What is Work Study and Methods Study?
In this section, we consider the different ways of solving problems, using quantitative approach and various othermodels. The business implications are wide, as solutions are used for decision making in all aspects of business like.
Procurement of Material:-Allocating Funds:-
Scheduling Production:-
Carrying of Inventory:-
The above 4 elements of quantitative modelling, aims is to optimise all these, so that costs are reduced & profits areincreased.Solving a problem using the quantitative approach involves three stems
Define the Problem,
Constructing aMathematical Model, and
Testing the Model and its solutions.Let us discuss each step in brief and see how quantitative approach is helpful in solving problems.1)
Define the Problem :-
When a problem arises, we have to- Determine the purpose of studying the problem- Consider the various factors such as Resources, Constraints, Uncertainties involving them, Costs involved, Timeavailable, and Issues that have utmost importance.After considering this, we have to determine which problem needs our attention, the factors affect it, and theinterrelationship between them.
Define the ProblemConstruct amathematicalTest the Model andits Solution
Construct a Mathematical Model :-
For constructing a mathematical model for he problem, we follow certainsteps. We:- Reformulate the physical problem into a form which can be analysed.- Convert it into a model. The models play a vital role in engineering, science and business.- Make models of dams, steel structure, chemical relations, organisation structure, graphs showing variation of share prices and others. Many of these are capable of being expressed in terms of mathematical equations.- Solve the mathematical equations for solving the problem. Equations can be solved, if the value of somevariation are known of presumed.3)
Test the Model and its Solution :-
In business we do not have complete or reliable data most of the times. Wehave formulated the equations with presumptions. So, we can verify whether the solution we have obtained isacceptable by testing the solutions with te help of some known outcomes for known variables. This testing themodel, as well as the presumptions we might have mode. We may have to change the model or thepresumptions if, the results obtained are not right.
Now we are discussing about Work Study and Methods Study :-Work Study: -
We can say that work study is being conducted when analysis of work methods is conducted duringthe period when a job is done on a machine or equipment. The study helps in designing the optimum work method andstandardisation of the work method. The study enables the methods engineer to search for better methods for higherutilisation of man and machine and accomplishment of higher productivity. The study gives an opportunity to workman tolearn the process of study thus making them able to offer suggestions for improved methods. This encourages workmenparticipation and they can be permitted to make changes and report the advantages that can be derived from those. Thiscourse is in alignment with the principle of continuous improvement and helps the organisation in the long run. Rewardsystems may be implemented for recognising contributions from the workmen.
Work study comprises of work measurement and method study. Work measurement focuses on the time element of work,while method study focuses on the methods deployed and development of better methods.
Methods Study: -
Methods study focus is on studying the method currently being used and developing a newmethod of performing the task in a better way. Operation Flow Charts, Motions Charts, Flow Process Charts, which are theelements of the task are studies to find the purpose of each activity, the sequence in which they are done and effect of these on the work. The study may help in changing some of them and even eliminate some of them to effectimprovements. The new method should in saving of time, reduced motions and simpler activities.
Q-4 What is Rapid Prototyping? Explain the difference between Automated Flow Line and Automated Assembly linewith example.
Rapid Prototyping:
Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small number.Rapid Prototyping uses virtual designs from Computer Aided Design (CAD) or animation modelling which transformsdimensional data to 3-dimensional views. The physical space of the product is amiable to have cross sections made. Crosssections taken at very close positions gives thin layers which enable the generation of a solid model of the designedproduct. The data that is created helps build a solid model exactly as per the drawings. Any shape can be generated in thismethod. Some of the other advanced Rapid Prototyping Modelling Processes are:
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Fused Deposition Modelling ( FDM)
Laminated Object Manufacturer (LOM)
Electronic Beam Melting (EBM)Since, the basis data about the product is already available in CAD; the above process can produce models in a matter of afew days. Conversional machines like lathes milling, machines, grinding machines, electro discharge machining (EDM) alsohelp in the production of prototyping. Due to their advantages, Rapid Prototyping is being increasingly used. A bi-monthlymagazine
TCT Magazine
calling the Rapid Prototyping as Time Compressing Techniques is dedicated to the publicationof latest developments in this field as researched and developed by practitioners around the world.
Prototyping is helpful to
determine the suitability of materials
study the various methods of manufacturer
determine type machinery require
develop techniques to overcome problem that may be encountered when full scale manufacturing is undertake.

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