Language Curriculum 1 TES020N205A Assignment 1 RYB09291801
there is a controlled practice where students practice expressions which they learnt through thelistening activity. An example of that is again in Cunningan’s coursebook, pronunciation task 2,where students have to practice and repeat the sentences that they created in pronunciationtask 1. Overall language acquisition in TBL is facilitated by cognitive and communicativelearning which gives opportunities to acquire language in a natural way through performing atask with an emphasis on meaning and form in order to develop fluency and accuracy gradually.As Foster, P. (1999: 69) writes:
‘The challenge for a task-based pedagogy, therefore, is to choose, sequence, and implement tasks in ways that will combine a focus on meaning and a focus on form. Skehan (1996)has developed a theoretical framework for task-based teaching that claims to balance thedevelopment of fluency with accuracy (...) Willis (1996) has produced a detailed practical framework for the task-based classroom in which learners are led through cycles of task planning, performance, repetition, and finally, comparison and native-speaker norms’.(Foster, P.1999:69)
PPP is a more traditional approach to second language acquisition, wherethe teacher’s role is to provide knowledge of the TL to the students by using prefabricatedexamples, and the learners’ role is a passive one. It is a prescriptive approach whereby themain concernis to elicit accuracy. As Foster, P. ( 1999:69) claims in her journal ‘Key Concepts in ELT, Task-based learning and pedagogy’:
‘The PPP model of language teaching (‘presentation, practice, performance’) is based on theassumption that a language is best presented to learners as a syllabus of structures, and that through controlled practice a fluent and accurate performance of the ‘structure of the day’ canbe achieved. Errors are evidence of poor learning requiring more PPP treatment’. (Foster, 1999:69).
Therefore PPP which focuses on teaching structures consists of three stages of the lessonpresentation, practice and production. As Harmer, J. (1998:31) describes:
‘PPP stands for Presentation, Practice and Production (...) In PPP classes or sequences theteacher presents the context and situation for the language (eg. describing a robot), and bothexplains and demonstrates the meaning and form of the new language’ (Harmer, J.1998 :31)