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State of Art Summary

State of Art Summary

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Published by Jackie Chieng

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Published by: Jackie Chieng on Dec 20, 2011
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12/20/2011

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Detectors for radiance-balancing sensors are limited to thermopiles and metal bolometers.Thermistor bolometers exhibit wide variations in resistance and responsivity and in theeffects of ambient temperature on these parameters. The precise temperature control re-quired to prevent mismatch
in
two balancing detectors makes the use of thermistorsimpractical (ref.
15).
Another factor that has to be considered when thermistor bolometers are used is thermalrunaway. A thermistor bolometer changes its resistance with temperature. The thermistormaterial has
a
negative temperature coefficient. At a temperature called the detector criticaltemperature, the bolometer impedance has been reduced to the point that the high bias cur-rent causes detector self-heating and thermal runaway.Thermistor bolometer behavior (ref. 18) for a detector biased at
60
percent of peak biasvoltage and base temperature maintained at room ambient is as follows:Detector signal/noise ratio BehaviorOutput is proportional to input.Output is approximately proportional to input.Output is not proportional to input.Detector heating produces a large resistance and voltageimbalance in bolometer bridge.Detector heating causes degradation of cements used
in
construction, and the detector burns out.
io1
to 105105 to
io6io6
to 107108109
2.5
State
of
the Art Summary
Table
I
summarizes a number of sensor characteristics. Care must be exercised in interpretingthis table because the best valuesgiven are not necessarily applicable to any one known sensor.
3.
CRITERIA
Horizon sensors should be designed to indicate the angular position
of
the optical dis-continuity, near where the Earth profile meets the space background, for determination ofthe spacecraft local vertical under all specified operational conditions.The design should achieve required accuracy, lifetime, and reliability within imposed size,weight, and power constraints. The design shall minimize adverse effects
of
the natural
16
 
TABLE
I.-State
of
the
Art Summary
CharacteristicSensor typeSpectral bandOptical materialApertureField of viewAccuracySun rejectionDetector typeReliabilityWeightPowerPossible choices or range of valuesConical scanEdge trackerRadiation balancingHorizon -crossing indicatorCO;! absorption band 14-16
pm
H20
absorption band
20-35
pmGermanium or silicon1to3in.
0.75'
to 3rectangular, square,or circular
0.05'
to
2'
Use of separate detectorUse of main detector by notingsignal level, pulsewidth, etc.Thermistor, metal bolometer, orthermopileMTBFa=15000hrto 120yr
0.5
to 25 Ib
0.5
to
20
W
Principal factors involvedAccuracy required, operational altitude; lengthof mission; ype of satellite, i.e., spinning or3-axis stabilized; and degree of mechanicalcomplexity permittedAdequate signal/noise ratio for desired scantype, good cloud rejection, and horizonstabilityDesired spectral bandLarge enough to give adequate signal/noiseratio for selected spectral band and scantypeAccuracy required, must give adequate signal/noise ratio for selected spectral bandAltitude of operationSpectral band selectedLength of missionDegree of mechanical and electrical complex-ity permittedDegree of complexity permittedAbility to anticipate Sun's presence beforeentering field of viewSelection depends mainly on type of sensor,whether scanning or nonscanningAccuracy required, weight and power limitsAccuracy required, type of scan desiredAccuracy required, type of scan desired
a
Mean time between failures.
17
 
environment, including cold clouds, atmospheric scattering, Sun interference, Moon inter-ference, and Earth radiance nonuniformities. Susceptibility to spacecraft adverse environ-mental effects including mechanical obscuration, electromagnetic interference, thermalradiation, and thermal conduction must be minimized. The output signals should be com-patible in level, dynamic range, data rate, and format with the control system of which theyare functional elements.The simplest, most reliable design capable of performing the specified function should beprovided.Designs developed with flight-proven hardware and techniques should be usedwhenever practicable.
3.1 Input
Phenomena
3.1.1 Spectral Region
The spectral region of operation should be selected to be consistent with performance re-quirements, considering effects caused by clouds, Earth spatial and temporal temperaturedifferences, and radiance profile shape variations.
3.1.2
Sun
Interference
Detector damage by solar heating must be prevented. Output errors caused by the Sunbeing in or near the detector field
of
view shall be minimized. An alarm signal should beconsidered to indicate actual
or
impending Sun errors. This alarm signal should be com-patible with switching logic circuits
so
that appropriate action may be taken consistent withthe horizon-sensor design and the requirements of the spacecraft attitude-control system.For radiance-balancing sensors, output errors and detector-plane thermal gradients must beconsidered when the Sun is
in
or near the total field of view encompassed by all detectors.
3.1.3.
Internal
Reflection
s
The optical design should be such that multiple reflections from external sources, suchas the Sun, Moon, Earth, or spacecraft, and from sources within the sensor itself do not
18

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