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LMECE204 Unified electronics-I lab manual

LMECE204 Unified electronics-I lab manual

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Published by Aman Khera

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Published by: Aman Khera on Dec 20, 2011
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06/23/2013

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LABORATORY MANUALCOURSE CODE: ECE 204 COURSE TITLE: UNIFIED ELECTRICAL LAB-I 
1
 
LIST OF PRACTICALS
 
S. No.Description1To design an implement a function generator to generate1)Square,2)triangular and3)sinusoidal waveforms using IC741 and simulate using pSpice2To find gain of the transistor in CE, CB and CC configuration on breadboard3To Design and implement1)Astable multivibrators using IC555 Timer on breadboard. And simulate using pSpice4To Design and Plot Frequency response of 1)LPF
2)
HPF
3)
BPF andBRF using IC741 on breadboard and simulate using pSpice5To design and implement an CLIPPER, CLAMPER circuit on breadboard and simulate usingpSpice6To study the gain of differential amplifier by varying the value of R
F
1)
R
F
= 4.1k ohms
2)
R
F
= 82k ohms on breadboard and and simulate using pSpiceMTE7To implement Full Adder using NAND gates and using pSpice8To study flipflops(SR,JK,D,T) (IC 7410,7400 etc...)9To implement adder using 4:1 mux10To realize D/A converters using IC 7411)R-2R ladder 2)Weighted Ladder, compare the results obtained on breadboard and simulate usingpSpice11To realize a 7-segment code converter on breadboard12To design and realize MOD-101)Up counte2)Down counter on breadboard
2
 
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 - Sine Wave Oscillator 
Sinusoids are useful waveforms, because they are convenient basis functions for analyzing the response of (linear) systems involving time derivatives and/or integrals of signals. Any sufficiently well-behaved signal can be represented by a linear combinationof sinusoids (through Fourier transforms) and derivative and integral operations on anyof the basis functions yields another basis function. In fact, sinusoids are the onlyfunctions that retain their original shape during processing by a linear system, whichmakes it easy to characterize the effect of the system by specifying only the amplitudeand phase change. In mathematical language, sinusoids, or rather imaginaryexponentials are the eigenfunctions of linear systems.Consequently, sine wave generators are useful tools for circuit testing and diagnosis (asyou have already seen in the previous labs). In this lab, you will design a variablefrequency sine wave generator. Although the approach you use cannot yield a sinewave of sufficient purity (
i.e.
low harmonic content) for use in a high quality generator,the quality of its waveform is sufficient for many less demanding applications. This is afairly inexpensive way of producing a versatile waveform generator (sine, triangle andsquare waves simultaneously) over a broad frequency range.The approach you will use involves the generation of a triangle wave followed by aconversion of the triangle wave to a sine wave using a nonlinear conversion circuit. It isrelatively easy to generate a high-quality variable frequency triangle wave using an opamp integrator circuit with a variable input resistor. (Alternatively, it is easy to convert avariable frequency square wave to a triangle wave using an integrator). The trianglewave generator will be made using a combination of an integrator and a Schmitt trigger as shown in the figure below.Although in practice the integrator and Schmitt trigger functions can be integrated into asingle fairly simple circuit, the approach outlined in this lab will give you exposure to twoopamp applications (integrators and Schmitt triggers separately). A circuit having theblock diagram shown on the next page can generate a triangle wave. When the Schmitttrigger output is negative, the integrator output ramps positive.When that output reaches the positive-going threshold of the Schmitt trigger, theSchmitt trigger output goes positive. This causes the integrator output to rampdownward until the Schmitt trigger’s negative going threshold is reached. This sends theSchmitt trigger output negative, and the cycle repeats. The symmetry of the trianglewave depends on two things. First the negative and positive outputs of the Schmitttrigger must be equal in magnitude to obtain equal slopes for the positive and negativegoing parts of the triangle wave. Second, thePositive and negative switching points of the Schmitt trigger, which must be equalmagnitude, control the positive and negative peaks of the triangle wave. Although anopamp-based
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