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Occurrence, Distribution, Content, and Dietary Intake of Phytate

Occurrence, Distribution, Content, and Dietary Intake of Phytate

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CHAPTER 3
Occurrence, Distribution, Content, andDietary Intake of Phytate
N. RUKMA REDDY
1. INTRODUCTION
P
HYTATE
(
myo
-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP
6
) widely occurs in plantseeds and/or grains [1–4], roots and tubers [1,3,5,6], fruits and vegeta-bles [3,5,6], nuts [3,5], pollen of various plant species [7–9], and organic soils[10,11]. The phytate fraction of organic soil contains a mixture of phosphory-lated derivatives of 
myo
-,
chiro
-,
scyllo
-, and
neo
-inositol [12]. Inositol phos-phates with fewer than six phosphate groups, such as
myo
-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, have been isolated and identified from the nucleatederythrocytes of birds, turtles, and freshwater fish [13–17].
2. OCCURRENCE
Phytate occurs primarily as a salt of mono- and divalent cations in discreteregions of grains and seeds [18–20]. It rapidly accumulates in grains and seedsduring their ripening period and maturation, accompanied by other substancessuch as starch, proteins, and lipids [21–25]. The accumulation site of phytatein grains and seeds is within the subcellular single membrane particles, aleu-rone grains or protein bodies [18,20,26,27]. The aleurone grains are located inthe aleurone cells of monocotyledonous seeds such as cereals. The aleuronegrains of rice are composed of at least two major parts: high phytate-containingparticle and surrounding coat that consists of protein and carbohydrate[28,29]. The aleurone grains of rice are spherical, about 1–3
m in diameter[30].
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC
 
In dicotyledonous seeds such as legumes (beans) and many other seeds,globoids are located within the proteinaceous matrix of protein bodies[31
33].Globoidsarepresentinthecotyledonsofdicotyledonousseedsbutnottheir seed coats. They vary in size and number depending on the species. Forexample, Prattley and Stanley [34] reported that isolated soy globoids variedin size from 0.1
1.0
m and were comparatively small in relation to proteinbodies (2
20
m). Some dicotyledonous seeds, namely peas, lack globoidswithin the protein bodies but still contain phytate [32]. Occurrence and biogen-esis of globoids within the protein bodies may be controlled by the calcium,magnesium, and potassium contents [19,33]. The presence of phytate withinthe globoids has been shown for a wide range of cereals such as oats [35],barley [36,37], wheat [26,38], rice [28,30], sorghum [39], and corn [40], anddicotyledonous seeds such as peas [27,33], soybeans [28,34], peanuts [41,42],and broad beans [43,44].Phytatecontentcanrangeupto60
80%ofthedryweightofgloboids[45,46].The chemical composition of phytate-rich particles of rice, globoids of cotton-seed, soybean, and peanuts, and phytate-rich isolated particles of Great North-ern beans is presented in Table 3.1.These were isolated by different isolation methods. The chemical composition of these isolated particles or globoids ischaracterized by high phytate, potassium, magnesium, and calcium concentra-tions. The isolated globoids of cottonseed had low amounts of protein, car-bohydrate, and lipid and 60% and 10%, respectively, of phytate and metals(potassium, magnesium, and calcium) [46]. Major components of globoidsfrom peanuts [42] were protein (35.1%), phytate (28%), and metals (5%). Theisolated phytate-rich particles of Great Northern beans [47] contained 34.3%protein, 30% carbohydrate, 26.6% phytate, and 3% metals. Over 90% of thecompounds of the isolated particles of rice bran were reported to contain phy-tate, potassium, and magnesium (Table 3.1). The isolated particles of rice bran and embryo had low amounts of protein and carbohydrate.Phytate occurs primarily as a potassium-magnesium salt in rice [18,28],wheat [26], broad beans [27], and sesame seeds [48], and as a calcium-magnesium-potassium salt in soybeans [27,34] and Great Northern beans [47].Prattley and Stanley [34] indicated that phytate in protein bodies of soybeansis present in water-soluble as well as water-insoluble forms as salts of metalsand proteins. Great Northern beans contain phytate in the water-soluble andwater-insolubleforms[47,49].Reddyetal.[49]foundthatphytateispresentasawater-solublesaltwithamolecularweight
<
1000daltonsandwater-insolublecomplex with molecular weight
>
1000 daltons in Great Northern beans. How-ever, the exact water-soluble forms of phytate in Great Northern beans havenot been identi
ed. Lott et al. [32] suggested that most phytate in peas iswater soluble and present as potassium phytate. Further studies are neededto identify the chemical form(s) in which phytate occurs in many grains andseeds.
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC
 
TABLE 3.1.
Chemical Composition of Phytic Acid-Containing Particles
a
Isolated from Cottonseed, Peanuts,Soybeans, Great Northern Beans (GNB), and Rice.
Composition Globoids of Globoids of Globoids of Isolated(Weight %) Cottonseed Peanuts
b
Soybeans Particles of GNBIsolated Particles ofRice Bran Rice Embryo
Nitrogen 0.70 Protein 35.10 34.30 0.66 0.84Carbohydrate 1.35 N.S.
c
30.00 0.72 0.78Phytic acid 28.00 23.80 26.58 66.68 70.30Organic phosphorus 13.85 7.30 Inositol 13.21 7.00 MineralsPotassium 6.40 2.00 3.61 0.26 14.55 22.83Magnesium 1.70 2.50 1.59 2.05 11.97 9.50Calcium 1.30 0.50 0.86 0.64 0.83 0.73Moisture 9.71 8.60
a
For details of isolation procedures, see References [28,29] for rice, [46] for cottonseed, [34] for soybeans, [42] for peanuts, [47] for GreatNorthern beans.
b
Globoids of peanuts were obtained after centrifugation at 20,000
×
g.
c
N.S. indicates that result is not significant.
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC

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