Occurrence, Distribution, Content, andDietary Intake of Phytate
N. RUKMA REDDY
-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP
) widely occurs in plantseeds and/or grains [1–4], roots and tubers [1,3,5,6], fruits and vegeta-bles [3,5,6], nuts [3,5], pollen of various plant species [7–9], and organic soils[10,11]. The phytate fraction of organic soil contains a mixture of phosphory-lated derivatives of
-inositol . Inositol phos-phates with fewer than six phosphate groups, such as
-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, have been isolated and identiﬁed from the nucleatederythrocytes of birds, turtles, and freshwater ﬁsh [13–17].
Phytate occurs primarily as a salt of mono- and divalent cations in discreteregions of grains and seeds [18–20]. It rapidly accumulates in grains and seedsduring their ripening period and maturation, accompanied by other substancessuch as starch, proteins, and lipids [21–25]. The accumulation site of phytatein grains and seeds is within the subcellular single membrane particles, aleu-rone grains or protein bodies [18,20,26,27]. The aleurone grains are located inthe aleurone cells of monocotyledonous seeds such as cereals. The aleuronegrains of rice are composed of at least two major parts: high phytate-containingparticle and surrounding coat that consists of protein and carbohydrate[28,29]. The aleurone grains of rice are spherical, about 1–3
m in diameter.
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