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Mexico US Relations September 2 2010

Mexico US Relations September 2 2010

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Published by Kim Hedum
Once again in writing there is talk about Eric Holder and Obama concerning their request for additional money for the Southwest Border's seven new teams, Team 7 is Fast and Furious. ... "The supplemental funds also include $196 million to support DOJ efforts on the Southwest border. Those funds will enable the creation of seven new ATF Gunrunner units and five FBI Hybrid Task Forces, as well as support additional DEA agents, federal attorneys, prosecutors, and immigration judges." ...
Once again in writing there is talk about Eric Holder and Obama concerning their request for additional money for the Southwest Border's seven new teams, Team 7 is Fast and Furious. ... "The supplemental funds also include $196 million to support DOJ efforts on the Southwest border. Those funds will enable the creation of seven new ATF Gunrunner units and five FBI Hybrid Task Forces, as well as support additional DEA agents, federal attorneys, prosecutors, and immigration judges." ...

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Published by: Kim Hedum on Dec 21, 2011
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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
Clare Ribando Seelke
Specialist in Latin American AffairsSeptember 2, 2010
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL32724
 
 Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for CongressCongressional Research Service
Summary
The United States and Mexico have a close and complex bilateral relationship, with extensiveeconomic linkages as neighbors and partners under the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA). In recent years, security issues have dominated U.S.-Mexican relations, as the UnitedStates has supported Mexican President Felipe Calderón’s campaign against drug traffickingorganizations (DTOs) through bilateral security cooperation initiatives including the MéridaInitiative, an anti-crime and counterdrug assistance package first funded in FY2008. Immigrationand border security have also returned to the forefront of the bilateral agenda since Arizonaenacted a controversial state law against illegal immigration (S.B. 1070) on April 23, 2010. In lateJuly 2010, a federal judge blocked large parts of S.B. 1070 from taking effect pending the resultsof a U.S. Department of Justice lawsuit challenging its constitutionality. In response to risingconcerns about border security, President Obama has deployed 1,200 National Guard troops tosupport law enforcement efforts along the U.S.-Mexico border and Congress has approved $600million in supplemental funds for border security (P.L. 111-230).Now in the fourth year of his six-year term, President Calderón of the conservative NationalAction Party (PAN) is focused on restarting the Mexican economy, which contracted by 7% in2009 (largely as a result of the U.S. recession), and combating drug traffickers and organizedcriminal groups. Although the Calderón Administration has arrested several top drug kingpins, thepersistent and increasingly
 
brazen violence committed by the DTOs has led to significantcriticism of Calderón’s anti-drug strategy. As the 2012 presidential elections approach, theMexican Congress, which is now dominated by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), couldbe reluctant to give President Calderón any major legislative victories. The PRI won nine of thetwelve governorships contested in the July 4, 2010 elections, while the PAN’s alliance with theleftist Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) captured three governorships.In recent years, U.S.-Mexican relations have grown stronger as the two countries have workedtogether to combat drug trafficking and secure their shared border. On May 19, 2010, PresidentCalderón traveled to Washington D.C. for a state visit with President Obama during which bothleaders reaffirmed their commitment to working together on a wide range of bilateral issues. TheObama Administration asked for $346.6 million in assistance for Mexico in its FY2011 budgetrequest, including $310 million in Mérida Initiative funding.The 111
th
Congress has maintained an active interest in Mexico with counternarcotics, border, andtrade issues dominating the agenda. To date, Congress has appropriated some $1.5 billion inassistance for Mexico under the Mérida Initiative, including $175 million in funds for justicesector programs included in the FY2010 Supplemental Appropriations Act (H.R. 4899/P.L. 111-212). Congress is likely to maintain a keen interest in how implementation of the MéridaInitiative and related border security initiatives are proceeding, particularly now that NationalGuard troops are being sent to the Southwest border. Congress may also consider proposals forcomprehensive immigration reform. On the trade front, Congress is likely to maintain interest inhow the Obama Administration moves to resolve the current trucking dispute with Mexico nowthat P.L. 111-117 would permit the resumption of a U.S.- funded pilot program for Mexicantrucks. This report will be updated.
 
 Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for CongressCongressional Research Service
Contents
Recent Developments..................................................................................................................1
 
Background on Mexico...............................................................................................................4
 
Political Developments.........................................................................................................4
 
Drug Trafficking and Heightened Violence and Crime in Mexico..........................................5
 
Economic Crisis and Nascent Recovery................................................................................7
 
Foreign Policy Challenges.....................................................................................................9
 
Mexican-U.S. Relations............................................................................................................10
 
Background........................................................................................................................10
 
Obama Administration........................................................................................................11
 
U.S. Assistance to Mexico...................................................................................................12
 
Bilateral Cooperation on Counternarcotics and Security Efforts.....................................13
 
Mérida Initiative...........................................................................................................14
 
New Mérida Initiative Strategy and the FY2011 Budget Request ..................................17
 
Department of Defense Assistance to Mexico................................................................17
 
Related Southwest Border Initiatives and FY2010 Supplemental Appropriationsfor Border Security....................................................................................................18
 
Human Rights Issues...........................................................................................................22
 
Compliance with Human Rights Conditions in the Mérida Initiative..............................23
 
Accountability for Abuses Committed During the “Dirty War” Period...........................23
 
Migration............................................................................................................................24
 
Trends in Mexican Immigration to the United States.....................................................24
 
Mexico’s Immigration Policies......................................................................................25
 
Recent Efforts to Enact Comprehensive Immigration Reform in the United States.........26
 
Reactions to S.B. 1070..................................................................................................27
 
Environmental Cooperation.................................................................................................28
 
Trade Issues........................................................................................................................29
 
Functioning of NAFTA Institutions...............................................................................30
 
Trade Disputes..............................................................................................................30
 
North American Cooperation on Security and Economic Issues...........................................32
 
Legislation in the 111
th
Congress...............................................................................................32
 
Enacted and Considered Legislation....................................................................................32
 
Additional Legislative Initiatives.........................................................................................35
 
Figures
Figure 1. Map of Mexico, Including States and Border Cities......................................................3
 
Tables
Table 1. U.S. Assistance to Mexico by Account, FY2007-FY2011.............................................12
 
Table 2. Mérida Initiative Funding for Mexico by Aid Account and AppropriationsMeasure.................................................................................................................................14
 

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