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oxycontin

oxycontin

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Published by: Canadian_Veterans_Ad on Dec 22, 2011
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Page 1 of 32
OXYCONTIN
 ® 
(OXYCODONE HCl CONTROLLED-RELEASE) TABLETS CII10 mg 15 mg 20 mg 30 mg 40 mg 60 mg* 80 mg* 160 mg*
* 60 mg, 80 mg, and 160 mg for use in opioid-tolerant patients only
301371-0D
WARNING:OxyContin contains oxycodone which is an opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlledsubstance with an abuse liability similar to morphine.OxyContin can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit.This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing OxyContin in situationswhere the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse,abuse, or diversion.OxyContin Tablets are a controlled-release oral formulation of oxycodonehydrochloride indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when acontinuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time.OxyContin Tablets are not intended for use on an as needed basis
.
Patients considered opioid tolerant are those who are taking at least 60 mg oralmorphine/day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl/hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone/day, 8 mg oralhydromorphone/day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone/day, or an equianalgesic dose of anotheropioid for one week or longer.OxyContin 60 mg, 80 mg, and 160 mg Tablets, a single dose greater than 40 mg, or atotal daily dose greater than 80 mg are only for use in opioid-tolerant patientsPersons at increased risk for opioid abuse include those with a personal or familyhistory of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mentalillness (e.g., major depression). Patients should be assessed for their clinical risks foropioid abuse or addiction prior to being prescribed opioids. All patients receivingopioids should be routinely monitored for signs of misuse, abuse and addiction., as theymay cause fatal respiratory depression when administered to patients who are nottolerant to the respiratory- depressant or sedating effects of opioids.OxyContin must be swallowed whole and must not be cut, broken, chewed, crushed ordissolved. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed or dissolved OxyContin tablets leads torapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.The concomitant use of OxyContin with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors such asmacrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole),and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir) may result in an increase in oxycodone plasmaconcentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse effects and may causepotentially fatal respiratory depression. Patients receiving OxyContin and a CYP3A4
 
Page 2 of 32
inhibitor should be carefully monitored for an extended period of time and dosageadjustments should be made if warranted.
 
DESCRIPTION
OxyContin
®
 (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release) Tablets are an opioid analgesicsupplied in 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg, 80 mg, and 160 mg tablet strengthsfor oral administration. The tablet strengths describe the amount of oxycodone per tablet asthe hydrochloride salt. The structural formula for oxycodone hydrochloride is as follows:C
18
H
21
NO
4
 
HCl MW 351.83The chemical formula is 4, 5
α
-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-onehydrochloride.Oxycodone is a white, odorless crystalline powder derived from the opium alkaloid,thebaine. Oxycodone hydrochloride dissolves in water (1 g in 6 to 7 mL). It is slightlysoluble in alcohol (octanol water partition coefficient 0.7). The tablets contain the followinginactive ingredients: ammonio methacrylate copolymer, hypromellose, lactose, magnesiumstearate, polyethylene glycol 400, povidone, sodium hydroxide, sorbic acid, stearyl alcohol,talc, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.The 10 mg tablets also contain: hydroxypropyl cellulose.The 15 mg tablets also contain: black iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and red iron oxide.The 20 mg tablets also contain: polysorbate 80 and red iron oxide.The 30 mg tablets also contain: polysorbate 80, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and black iron oxide.The 40 mg tablets also contain: polysorbate 80 and yellow iron oxide.The 60 mg tablets also contain: polysorbate 80 and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake
NCH
3
OOCH
3
O
OHHCl
 
Page 3 of 32
The 80 mg tablets also contain: FD&C blue No. 2, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and yellow ironoxide.The 160 mg tablets also contain: FD&C
 
blue No. 2 and polysorbate 80.OxyContin
®
 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg Tablets are tested using USP Dissolution Test2 and meet the associated tolerances provided in Acceptance Table 2 of the OxycodoneHydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets USP Monograph.OxyContin
®
 15 mg, 30 mg, and 60 mg Tablets are not described in the USP but are testedusing USP Dissolution Test 2 of the Oxycodone Hydrochloride Extended-Release TabletsUSP Monograph.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Oxycodone is a pure agonist opioid whose principal therapeutic action is analgesia. Othermembers of the class known as opioid agonists include substances such as morphine,hydromorphone, fentanyl, codeine, and hydrocodone. Pharmacological effects of opioidagonists include anxiolysis, euphoria, feelings of relaxation, respiratory depression,constipation, miosis, and cough suppression, as well as analgesia. Like all pure opioidagonist analgesics, with increasing doses there is increasing analgesia, unlike with mixedagonist/antagonists or non-opioid analgesics, where there is a limit to the analgesic effectwith increasing doses. With pure opioid agonist analgesics, there is no defined maximumdose; the ceiling to analgesic effectiveness is imposed only by side effects, the more seriousof which may include somnolence and respiratory depression.
Central Nervous System
The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioidreceptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identifiedthroughout the brain and spinal cord and play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.Oxycodone produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratorycenters. The respiratory depression involves both a reduction in the responsiveness of thebrain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electricalstimulation.Oxycodone depresses the cough reflex by direct effect on the cough center in the medulla.Antitussive effects may occur with doses lower than those usually required for analgesia.Oxycodone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioidoverdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic originmay produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen withhypoxia in the setting of OxyContin
®
overdose (See
OVERDOSAGE
).

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