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14477622 Mechanism and Kinematics

# 14477622 Mechanism and Kinematics

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11/19/2012

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Introduction to mechanism and kinematicsObjectives
Up on completion of this chapter, the student will be able to1.Explain the need for kinematic analysis of mechanism.2.Define the basic components that comprise a mechanism.3.Draw the kinematic diagram from a view of a complex mechanism.4.Compute the number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism.5.Identify a four bar mechanism and classify it according to its possible motion.6.Identify a slider crank mechanism.
Mechanism and machinesIntroduction
The subject theory of machine deals with the study of motion and forces inmachinery devices that provide a wide variety of functions. The subject mattertreated inhere includes synthesis and analysis of machinery. The study of a mechanism involves its analysis as well as synthesis
Analysis
is the study of motions and forces concerning different parts of an existingmechanism, where as
synthesis
involves the design of its different partsIn a reciprocating engine, the displacement of the piston depends up on the lengthof the connecting rod and the crank. It is independent of the bearing strength of theparts or whether they are able to withstand the forces or not. Thus, for the study of motion, it is immaterial if a machine part is made of mild steel, cast iron or wood. Itis not necessary to know the actual shape and area of cross section of the part. Thestudy of mechanisms, therefore, can be divided in to the following disciplines.
Kinematics
It deals with the relative motions of different parts of a mechanism without taking into consideration forces producing the motions.
It also deals with the way things move. Formally defined, it is the study of thegeometry of motion.Kinematic analysis involves
-
Determination of position

-
Determination of displacement, rotation, speed, velocity and acceleration.
Dynamics
It involves the calculations of forces impressed up on different parts of amechanism. The forces can be either static or dynamic.Another major task in designing machinery is determining the effect of the forcesacting in the machine Terminologies (
basic definition
)
Mechanism
: - is the mechanical portion of a machine that has the function of transferring motion and from a power source to an output.
If a number of bodies are assembled in such a way that the motion of one causesconstrained and predictable motion to the others, it is known as a mechanism. Amechanism transmits and modifies a motion.
Machines: - are devices used to alter transmit and direct forces to accomplish aspecific objective.
A machine is a mechanism or combination of mechanisms which, Apart fromimparting definite motions to the parts, also transmits and modifies theavailable mechanical energy in to some kind of desired work.
A machine may also be defined to be a combination of resistant bodieswhose relative motions are completely constrained, by means of which thenatural energies at our disposal may be transformed in to any special from of works.In the first place, then, a machine is a combination of bodies- a single body cannot constitute a machine. In each of what are often called the ‘simple machine’ for example the lever, wheel and axle etc… there are at least two bodies, in some morethan two. The mare bar which we call a lever does not in itself constitute a machineeither simple or otherwise.
n.
1.a.A device consisting of fixed and moving parts that modifies mechanical energyand transmits it in a more useful form. b.A simple device, such as a lever, a pulley, or an inclined plane, that alters themagnitude or direction, or both, of an applied force; a simple machine.2.A system or device for doing work, as an automobile or a jackhammer, together with its power source and auxiliary equipment.
3.
A system or device, such as a computer, that performs or assists in the performance of ahuman task:
The machine is down.

4.An intricate natural system or organism, such as the human body.5.A person who acts in a rigid, mechanical, or unconscious manner.
6.
An organized group of people whose members are or appear to be under the control of one or more leaders:
a political machine.
7.a.A device used to produce a stage effect, especially a mechanical means of lowering an actor onto the stage. b.A literary device used to produce an effect, especially the introduction of asupernatural being to resolve a plot.
8.
Of, relating to, or felt to resemble a machine:
machine repairs; machine politics.v.
, -chined, -chin·ing, -chines.
v.tr.
To cut, shape, or finish by machine.
v.intr.
To be cut, shaped, or finished by machine:
This metal machines easily.
Planar mechanism: - a mechanism its motion is limited to two dimensional spaces.
Plane motion when a body moves so that any one selection parallel to the first moves also in its own plane, and the motion of the body is said to be ‘co-plane’ ‘coplanar’ or we may call it simply ‘plane’.
Mechanism terminology
: - is a mechanism where all parts are connected together to form a closedchain