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Published by: gurugabru on Dec 23, 2011
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Management Information System
Q1. What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS? Give someDisadvantage of MIS?
Answer:-MIS systems are extensively used in generating statistical report of any organizationwhich can be used to study management by behavior. They set objectives totheir employees using ratio analysis. Management also uses MIS for decision making from the lowlevel management to top level management. In order to perform task usingInformation systems use of technical support is required. So it is the combination of 3components i.e. organization, technology and management.MIS characteristics•It supports transaction handling and record keeping.•It is also called as integrated database Management System which supports in major functionalareas.•It provides operational, tactical, and strategic level managers with east access to timely but,for the most, structured information.•It supports decision –making function which is a vital role of MIS.•It is flexible which is needed to adapt to the changing needs of the organization.•It promotes security system by providing only access to authorized users.•MIS not only provides statistical and data analysis but also works on the basis on MBO(management by objectives). MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. It helps to build relevant and measurable objectives, monitor results, and sendalerts.Basic Function of MISThe main functions of MIS are:•Data Processing: Gathering, storage, transmission, processing and getting output of the data. Making thedata into information is a major task.Prediction: Prediction is based on the historical data by applying the prior knowledge methodology by using modern mathematics, statistics or simulation. Prior knowledgevaries on the application and with different departments.•Planning: Planning reports are produced based on the enterprise restriction on the companies and helps in planning each functional department to work reasonably.•Control: MIS helps in monitoring the operations and inspects the plans. It consists of differences betweenoperation and plan with respect to data belonging to different functional department. It controls thetimely action of the plans and analyzes the reasons for the differences between the operations and plan. Thereby helps managers to accomplish their decision making task successfully•Assistance: It stores the related problems and frequently used information to apply them for relative economic benefits. Through this it can derive instant answers of the related problem.Disadvantages of MISThe following are some of the disadvantages of MIS:•MIS is highly sensitive: MIS is very helpful in maintaining logging information of an authorized user.This needs to monitor constantly.•Quality of outputs is governed by quality of inputs.•MIS budgeting: There is difficulty in maintaining indirect cost and overheads. Capturing theactual cost needs to have an accrual system having true costs of outputs which is extremely difficult. It has been difficult to establish definite findings.•MIS is not flexible to update itself for the changes.•The changes in the decision of top level management decrease its effectiveness.•Information accountability is based on the qualitative factors and the factors likemorality, confidence or attitude will not have any base.
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2. Explain Knowledge based system?
 Explain DSS and OLAP with example? Answer: Knowledge Based System (KBS)KBS are the systems based on knowledge base. Knowledge base is thedatabase maintained for knowledge management which provides the means of datacollections, organization and retrieval of knowledge. The knowledge managementmanages the domain where it creates and enables organization for adoptionof insights and experiences. There are two types of knowledge bases. a. Machine readableknowledge bases: The knowledge base helps the computer to process through. Itmakes the data in the computer readable code which makes the operator to performeasier. Such information sere used by semantic web. Semantic web Isa web that will make a description of the system that a system can understand. b. Human readable knowledge bases: They aredesigned to help people to retrieve knowledge. The information need to be processed bythe reader. The reader can access the information and synthesize their own.KBS refers to a system of data and information used for decision making. The system is automated to work on the knowledge baseddata and information required in a particular domain of management activity. The processing is done basedon the past decisions taken under suitable conditions. Decision making is based on thefact that the condition is similar to the past situation hence the decision is also is similar. Examplesof KBS are intelligent systems, robotics, neural networks etc.Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)OLAP refers to a system in which there are predefined multiple instances of various modulesused in business applications. Any input to such a system results in verification of the facts with respect tothe available instances. A nearest match is found analytically and the results displayed form thedatabase. The output is sent only after thorough verification of the input facts fed to thesystem. The system goes through a series of multiple checks of the various parameters used in business decision making. OLAP is also referred to as a multidimensional analytical model. Many big companies use OLAP to get good returns in business.System The querying process of the OLAP is very strong. It helps the management take decisions likewhich month would be appropriate to launch a product in the market, what should be the productionquantity to maximize the returns, what should be the stocking policy in order to minimize thewastage etc.A model of OLAP may be well represented in the form of a 3D box. There are six faces of the box. Each adjoining faces with common vertex may be considered to represent the various parameter of the business situation under consideration. E.g.: Region, Sales & demand, Product etc.Model of OLAP 
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Decision Support Systems (DSS)DSS is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all l the resourcesavailable and make use in the decision making. In management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. To solve such problems you mayhave to use complex theories. The models that would be required to solve such problems may have to be identified. DSS requires a lot of managerial abilitiesand managers judgment. You may gather and present the following information by usingdecision support application:• Accessing all of your current information assets, includinglegacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts• Comparative sales figures between one week and the next• Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions3. What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain whatis meant by BPR?What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data Mining is useful in terms of MIS? Answer:Value Chain Analysis:The activities performed by a particular enterprisecan be analyzed into primary activities, which directly adds valueto the enterprise’s factors of production, which are together referred to as the valuechain’, and supporting activities.Figure: Product Differentiation and Value Chain representation Porter’s Enterprise Value-ChainValue-addition activities like production, marketing delivery,and servicing of the product. These activities are connected ina chain. Support activities include those providing purchasedinputs, technology, human resources, or overall infrastructurefunctions to support the primary activities. It is possible to reduce the transaction cost by proper coordination of all the activities. It should be possible to gather better information for various controls and also replace the same by less costlier activities. It will also be possible toreduce the overall time required to complete an activity. Therefore coordination is very important toachieve competitive advantage. For this it is necessary to manage the value chainas a system rather than as separate parts. An enterprises valuechain for competing in a particular industry is embedded in a larger  
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