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PMANE Expert Committee Report Dec 2011

PMANE Expert Committee Report Dec 2011

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11/10/2012

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 REPORT OF THE
P
EOPLE
S
 
M
OVEMENT
 
A
GAINST
 
N
UCLEAR
 
E
NERGY
 
(P
MANE
)
 
E
XPERT
 
C
OMMITTEE
 
ON
S
 AFETY 
,
 
F
EASIBILITY 
 
 A
ND
 
 A
LTERNATIVES
 
T
O
 
UDANKULAM
 
N
UCLEAR
 
P
OWER
 
P
LANT
 
(KKNPP)
 
12
th
December 2011
 
 
11
Executive
 
Summary
 
The
 
Committee
 
appointed
 
by
 
the
 
Peoples
 
Movement
 
Against
 
Nuclear
 
Energy
 
studied
 
various
 
reports,
 
documents
 
and
 
papers
 
on
 
KKNPP
 
in
 
particular
 
and
 
nuclear
 
energy
 
and
 
ionizing
 
radiation
 
in
 
general.
 
A
 
38
 
page
 
report
 
by
 
the
 
Central
 
Expert
 
Group
 
(CEG)
 
was
 
made
 
available
 
to
 
us.
 
Besides
 
responding
 
to
 
the
 
assertions
 
of 
 
the
 
CEG
 
report,
 
we
 
are
 
also
 
bringing
 
forward
 
our
 
own
 
studies
 
that
 
are
 
relevant
 
to
 
the
 
reactor
 
safety..
 
Most
 
of 
 
the
 
documents
 
that
 
were
 
asked
 
by
 
PMANE
 
were
 
not
 
shared
 
to
 
the
 
technical
 
committee
 
including
 
the
 
site
 
evaluation
 
study
 
and
 
other
 
documents.
 
Despite
 
this
 
handicap
 
the
 
committee
 
has
 
gone
 
in
 
depth
 
and
 
analysed
 
various
 
issues.
 
This
 
compilation
 
is
 
divided
 
into
 
four
 
parts.
 
Part
 
I
 
deals
 
with
 
the
 
site
specific
 
problems
 
of 
 
KKNPP.
 
These
 
includes
 
(i)
 
a
 
review
 
of 
 
geological
 
and
 
oceanographic
 
studies
 
in
 
around
 
KKNPP,
 
(ii)
 
inadequate
 
provision
 
of 
 
fresh
 
water
 
in
 
the
 
nuclear
 
island
 
and
 
the
 
township,
 
(iii)
 
limestone
 
mining
 
at
 
the
 
nuclear
 
site,
 
(iv)
 
construction
 
of 
 
a
 
township
 
for
 
tsunami
 
survivors
 
within
 
the
 
sterilized
 
zone
 
which
 
apparently
 
escaped
 
the
 
attention
 
of 
 
NPCIL,
 
(v)
 
contradictions
 
and
 
false
 
statements
 
by
 
several
 
expert
 
groups
 
that
 
have
 
studied
 
the
 
nuclear
 
facilities
 
during
 
2011
 
and
 
(vi)
 
possibility
 
of 
 
station
 
black
 
out
 
beyond
 
a
 
month
 
due
 
to
 
space
 
weather
 
anomalies.
 
Part
 
II
 
deals
 
with
 
the
 
human
 
health
 
concerns
 
of 
 
low
 
level
 
radiation.
 
This
 
is
 
based
 
on
 
epidemiological
 
studies
 
conducted
 
among
 
the
 
(i)
 
bomb
 
victims
 
of 
 
Hiroshima
Nagasaki,
 
(ii)
 
down
winders
 
of 
 
Madras
 
Atomic
 
Power
 
Station
 
(MAPS),
 
(iii)
 
workers
 
of 
 
nuclear
 
facilities
 
and
 
their
 
families
 
in
 
India
 
and
 
(iv)
 
people
 
living
 
in
 
high
 
natural
 
background
 
radiation
 
in
 
Kerala.
 
Part
 
III
 
is
 
an
 
in
depth
 
study
 
of 
 
the
 
effects
 
of 
 
releases
 
of 
 
radioactivity
 
and
 
700
 
billion
 
liters
 
of 
 
hot
 
water
 
from
 
each
 
reactor
 
every
 
day
 
on
 
the
 
marine
 
eco
system.
 
The
 
impacts
 
include
 
depletion
 
of 
 
fisheries
 
and
 
multiplication
 
of 
 
heat
tolerant
 
organisms
 
like
 
 jelly
 
fish.
 
The
 
depletion
 
of 
 
fisheries
 
will
 
negatively
 
impact
 
the
 
livelihood
 
of 
 
fisher
people
 
and
 
the
 
food
 
sovereignty
 
of 
 
the
 
people
 
in
 
general.
 
Jelly
 
fish
 
attack
 
can
 
be
 
a
 
problem
 
for
 
the
 
intake
 
pipes
 
for
 
reactor
 
coolant
 
and
 
raw
 
water
 
for
 
desalination
 
plants.
 
Part
 
IV
 
deals
 
with
 
other
 
safe
 
and
 
sustainable
 
alternatives
 
for
 
electricity
 
generation
 
and
 
contains
 
a
 
detailed
 
analysis
 
of 
 
fuel
 
shifting.
 
In
 
short,
 
the
 
infra
structure
 
built
 
with
 
so
 
much
 
of 
 
investment
 
will
 
not
 
have
 
to
 
be
 
abandoned.
 
 
Report of the P-MANE Expert Committee
2
PART
-
1
:
 
KKNPP
 
S
PECIFIC
 
S
 AFETY 
 
R
ELATED
 
I
SSUES
 
1.1)
 
Geology 
 
and 
 
Oceanography 
 
Kudankulam
 
site
 
is
 
transected
 
by
 
sub
 
volcanic
 
intrusive
 
cutting
 
into
 
the
 
granulite
 
grade
 
of 
 
metamorphic
 
rocks.
 
The
 
configuration
 
of 
 
these
 
sub
 
volcanic
 
intrusive,
 
brought
 
out
 
by
 
a
 
recent
 
ground
 
magnetic
 
survey,
 
deems
 
a
 
horst
graben
 
structure
 
criss
crossing
 
the
 
E
W
 
trend
 
of 
 
the
 
coast.
 
These
 
sub
 
volcanic
 
bodies
 
have
 
bisected
 
the
 
near
 
surface
 
crust
 
in
 
the
 
form
 
of 
 
plugs
 
to
 
the
 
west
 
and
 
in
 
the
 
form
 
of 
 
dyke
 
swarms
 
to
 
the
 
east,
 
indicating
 
a
 
severe
 
crustal
 
dilation
 
to
 
the
 
east.
 
It
 
is
 
also
 
suggested
 
that
 
crustal
 
thinning
 
and
 
mantle
 
upwelling
 
have
 
led
 
to
 
the
 
emplacement
 
of 
 
mantle
 
hybrid
 
rocks
 
as
 
dykes
 
and
 
plugs,
 
near
 
(200
 
meters
 
deep)
 
sub
surface.
 
Places
 
around
 
Kudankulam
 
have
 
experienced
 
small
 
volume
 
volcanic
 
eruptions
 
in
 
the
 
years
 
1998,
 
1999,
 
2001
 
and
 
2005.
 
The
 
nearest
 
eruption
 
occurred
 
at
 
 just
 
26
 
kilometers
 
away
 
from
 
the
 
KKNPP
 
site.
 
The
 
products
 
of 
 
these
 
eruptions
 
have
 
been
 
confirmed
 
by
 
various
 
researchers
 
as
 
the
 
ones
 
produced
 
by
 
volcanic
 
activity.
 
One
 
cannot
 
rule
 
out
 
such
 
eruptions
 
at
 
the
 
site
 
itself.
 
Issues
 
of 
 
subduction,
 
fire
 
and
 
impact
 
of 
 
high
 
speed
 
missiles
 
emanating
 
from
 
the
 
burst
 
need
 
to
 
be
 
addressed.
 
Various
 
researchers
 
have
 
found
 
undersea
 
volcanoes
 
and
 
volcano
 
vents
 
in
 
the
 
Gulf 
 
of 
 
Mannar
 
(GoM)
 
ever
 
since
 
1975.
 
Kudankulam
 
site
 
is
 
located
 
at
 
about
 
100
 
kilometers
 
from
 
these
 
structures.
 
A
 
magnetic
 
survey
 
conducted
 
in
 
the
 
GoM
 
in
 
the
 
year
 
1994
 
had
 
revealed
 
extensive
 
emplacement
 
of 
 
its
 
crust
 
by
 
basltic
 
rocks,
 
eventually
 
making
 
the
 
crust
 
 just
 
1
5
 
kilometers
 
thin.
 
A
 
1978
 
study
 
by
 
the
 
volcanologist
 
P.Hedervari
 
places
 
this
 
site
 
as
 
one
 
that
 
belongs
 
to
 
the
 
Indo
 
Australian
 
seismic
 
zone.
 
The
 
presence
 
of 
 
dykes
 
of 
 
trachytes,
 
alkali
 
basalts,
 
sovites,
 
phlogopite
carbonatitic
 
breccias
 
and
 
lavas,
 
floats
 
of 
 
volcanic
 
bombs,
 
ash
 
tuffs
 
and
 
brecchias
 
in
 
Kudankulam
 
site
 
bring
 
to
 
the
 
mind
 
the
 
case
 
of 
 
High
 
Radioactive
 
Waste
 
Repository
 
at
 
the
 
Yucca
 
Mountain,
 
Nevada,
 
USA,
 
which
 
has
 
been
 
put
 
on
 
cold
 
storage
 
after
 
two
 
decades
 
of 
 
research.
 
The
 
presence
 
of 
 
slumps
 
in
 
Gulf 
 
of 
 
Mannar
 
puts
 
forward
 
the
 
possibility
 
of 
 
submarine
 
landslides
 
causing
 
near
 
field
 
mega
 
tsunamis.
 
Presence
 
of 
 
sill
 
holes
 
at
 
Pannayarkulam,
 
10
 
km
 
away
 
from
 
Kudankulam
 
indicates
 
that
 
this
 
region
 
might
 
be
 
a
 
karst
 
region.
 
These
 
observations
 
necessitate
 
the
 
need
 
of 
 
volcanic
 
hazards,
 
karst
 
hazard
 
and
 
tsunamihazard
 
studies
 
of 
 
the
 
Kudankulam
 
site
 
before
 
the
 
reactor
 
gets
 
commissioned.
 

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