1.1A cyclical and marginal industry
1.2Crisis turns to disaster
1.4Airline challenges in the twenty-ﬁrst century
2.1The three pillars of economic regulation
2.2Bilateralism under pressure
2.3Liberalisation and ‘open markets’ 1978–91
2.4Towards ‘open skies’ – from 1992 onwards
2.5The single European market
3.1.Clouds in the open skies
3.2The nationality rules: an anomaly in the global
3.3Towards clear skies
3.4The European Court changes the rules
3.5A Trans-Atlantic Common Aviation Area?
4.2Diversity of airline alliances
4.4Cost synergies and reductions
4.6Bypassing regulatory barriers
4.8Are alliances anti-competitive?
4.10A response to economic forces or to uncertainty?
5.1The importance of labour costs
5.2The unit cost of labour
5.3Productivity of labour
5.4Growing pressures to reduce the cost of labour
5.5Labour as a cost differentiator
5.6Strategies for reducing labour costs
5.7Sharing the spoils: employees as shareholders
5.8The labour challenge
6.1A new phenomenon sweeps the world
6.2The Southwest model
6.3The low-cost model catches on in the USA
6.4The impact of low-cost airlines in Europe
6.5The Europeans follow the Southwest model
6.6How great is the cost differential?
6.7A sustainable cost advantage
6.9Charters – the other low-cost model
6.10A passing phase or a model for the future?
7.1Increasing focus on the customer
7.2IT driving the airline business model
7.3The impact of e-commerce on marketing
7.4Drivers for change
7.5Risks and problems of e-commerce
7.6The role of global distribution systems
7.7Future developments and strategies
7.8Playing by the new rules – customer relations
8.2Distressed state airline syndrome
8.3Preparing for privatisation
8.4Resolving privatisation issues
8.5State aid and the single European market
8.6The Olympic Airways case
8.7Saving the species!
9.1A period of uncertainty
9.3Repairing the network model
9.4Strategies for the low-cost sector
9.5Cost reduction as a long-term necessity
9.6Marketing focused on yield improvement
9.7Developing an alliance strategy
9.8An improved corporate culture
9.9Towards the virtual airline?
9.10The future shape of the airline industry