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1 11 07_Sample Mid Term for HUM 312 Heroes Anti Heroes1!11!07

1 11 07_Sample Mid Term for HUM 312 Heroes Anti Heroes1!11!07

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05/09/2014

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The essay below was written in this section and is reproduced anonymously with the permission of the writer. It isn’t a perfect 4.0 essay by any means—its ideas could be better organized and expressed (items d., e., and f. on the Scoring Sheets I use for thisclass), but it does an exceptional job in terms of responding fully and accurately to the prompt (items a., b., and c. on the Scoring Sheet). Notice that it answers in some detailall the questions posed by the prompt below.
 
Short Essay 2 •
 Luke Rex
 
a)Analyze Sophocles’ hero Luke according to Frye’s five types of heroes (above): whichis Luke, and why? Explain in detail why he
is
one type (or more?) and
isn’t 
the others.What does that kind of hero say about Sophocles’ society? About us?
 Northrop Frye,
 Anatomy of Criticism
1
1
. If superior in
kind 
both to other men and to the environment of other men ,
the hero is adivine being
, and the story about him will be a
myth
in the common sense of a story about a god.
2
. If 
superior in
degree
to other men
and to his environment, the hero is the typical hero of 
romance
, whose actions are marvelous but who is
himself identified as a human being
. The heroof romance moves in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are slightly suspended: prodigiesof courage and endurance, unnatural to us, are natural to him, and enchanted weapons, talkinganimals, terrifying ogres and witches, and talismans of miraculous power violate no rule of  probability once the postulates of romance have been established. Here we have moved from myth, properly so called, into legend, folk tale,
märchen
, and their literary affiliates and derivatives.
3
. If superior in degree to other men but not to his natural environment (33
), the hero is aleader.
He has authority, passions, and powers of expression far greater than ours, but what he doesis subject both to social criticism and to the order of nature. This is the hero of the
high
 
mimetic
mode, of most epic and tragedy, and is primarily the kind of hero that Aristotle had in mind.
4.
If superior neither to other men nor to his environment
 
, the hero is one of us: werespond to a sense of his common humanity
 
, and demand from the poet the same canons of  probability that we
find in our own experience
. This gives us the hero of the
low mimetic
mode, of most comedy and of realistic fiction. “High” and “low” have no connotations of comparative value, but are purely diagrammatic . . . .
5
. If inferior in power or intelligence to ourselves, so that we have the sense of lookingdown on a scene of bondage, frustration, or absurdity, the hero belongs to the
ironic
mode. This isstill true when the reader feels that he is or might be in the same situation, as the situation is being judged by the norms of a greater freedom (34).
Humanities 310 • Heroism • Some Thematic Patterns
The transformations of the hero follow a number of thematic patterns and assume a varietyof shapes. Some of the most common motifs below overlap; some indeed aresubcategories of or synonyms for others, as we’ll discover recurrently. But still, youmight want to keep an eye out for variations on the themes below. (This isn’t a list of heroic traits, just recurrent themes.)
1
Northrop Frye,
 Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957. 33-34.
 
Mysterious Origins or Past (Moses among the bulrushes, the unknown parentage of Luke)
Disguised Identity (Odysseus upon his return to Ithaca)
Ritual Scar, Mark of Identity (Odysseus’ scar, Pikes leg in
The Wild Bunch
, RatsoRizzo’s leg in
Midnight Cowboy
)
Summons to the Quest (Christ and John the Baptist, Telemachos and Athena)
Cyclic Departure and Return (Odysseus’s travels)
Faithful Friend or Servant (Eumaios in the
Odyssey
, Horatio in
 Hamlet 
)
Betrayal or Suspected Betrayal (Judas, Laertes in
 Hamlet 
)
Patterns of Ascent and Descent (Christ’s descent into the grave and resurrection,Marlow’s journey upriver in
 Heart of Darkness)
Rite of Initiation or Passage (Adela Quested in the Marabar Caves in
 Passage to India
)
Consulting the Mentor (Telemachos/Nestor, Mentor; the “old men” in
The Wild Bunch
)
Descent into the Unconscious or Night-Sea Journey (Job in the whale’s belly)
Underworld Journey (Odysseus’s meeting with Tiresias in Hades, Prufrock’s descent intoa private hell)
Supernatural Intervention (ghost of Hamlet’s father)
Hero’s Narrative of His Adventures (Odysseus’s tale of his adventures among thePhaiakians)
Symbolic Death or Maiming (Christ, Odysseus’s act of self-blinding)
Ritual Cleansing (Christ’s baptism, anointing of his feet by Mary Magdalen)
Symbolic or Bodily Healing of Wounds (Eastwood in
 Fistful of Dollars
,
Yojimbo
)
Captivity and Escape (Odysseus in Cyclops’ cave, Eastwood, Angel’s capture in
The Wild  Bunch
, Ratso Rizzo and Joe Buck in New York/Florida)
Retreat to Pastoral “Greenworld” (Angel’s village in
The Wild Bunch
)
Retreat to Wilderness Isolation (Christ in the wilderness, Adela at the temple in
 Passageto India
)
Wandering (Luke before his arrival at Thebes)
Wasteland Crossing (Israelites’ forty years in the wilderness, Percival in the Graillegends, Gawain’s winter journey in
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 
)
Rescue of/by the Hero (Angel in
The Wild Bunch
)
Trial by Combat (Menelaus’s wrestling with Proteus in
The Odyssey
)
Trial by Water (storms/shipwrecks of 
The Odyssey,
river crossings in
The Wild Bunch
)
Trial by Sexual Temptation (Odysseus with Circe or Calypso, Gawain’s dalliances in
Sir Gawain
)
Trial by Economic/Social Temptation (Nora’s wish to remain with Torvald)
Trial by Spiritual Temptation (Christ in Gethsemane or in the wilderness)
Trial by Temptation to Death (Hamlet’s suicide wish)
Atonement with Father (Christ/Father, Telemachos/Odysseus, Hamlet/Hamlet)
Reconciliation with Mother (Hamlet and Gertrude)
Attainment of or Reunion with Spouse (Odysseus and Penelope)
Symbolic Weapon (the great bow of Odysseus, Eastwood’s revolver, Yojimbo’s sword,Willy Loman’s car)
 
Apotheosis of Hero (Christ’s assumption into heaven, Luke in Luke at Colonus)
Rebirth of the Social Order (Fortinbras’s arrival in
 Hamlet 
, ending of 
 Luke
,
The Wild  Bunch
)
Achievement of Transcendent Understanding (Luke, Hamlet, Joe Buck in
Midnight Cowboy
)
Humanities 310 • Heroism/Antiheroism • Character Traits/Values
So far, we’ve seen one definition of antiheroism in Northrop Frye’s thinking about the heroof an
ironic
story. As he tells us, “If inferior in power or intelligence to ourselves, so that wehave the sense of looking down on a scene of bondage, frustration, or absurdity, the hero belongs to the
ironic
mode.” In other words, an antihero is a hero who’s defined less by his“powers” than by his limitations—though he may have heroic aspirations, like Eliot’sPrufrock, he is prevented from achieving them by the conditions of his world (his lack of freedom, powerlessness, alienation).A second way of defining the difference between heroism and antiheroism is this: if the herotypically reflects and responds to the values of his society, then the antihero fails to do so or embodies values in conflict with those of his community—most often simply because theantihero lives in a world whose values are no longer universally shared. Luke and Hamlet,for example, have a chance at succeeding because their societies agree on what heroism isand should be; Eliot’s Prufrock, on the other hand, doesn’t because his society doesn’t agreeon what values are heroic.Though hardly accurate as a representation of any single hero or antihero, the schema belowmight provide you with a map of heroic and antiheroic ethics, a sort of genealogy of moralsto compare with and help define each of the characters we meet. But use with care. If youused Hamlet as a test case, you might find that he qualifies for half the heroic qualities below,half the antiheroic ones. These are not, therefore, defining traits of the hero or antihero.Only a model or definition of a hero will do that.HeroismAntiheroismShared social valuesDisjunctive social valuesIndependence, autonomyAlienation, dependenceFixed selfFluid selCertaintyDoubtBelief in reason, virtueSkepticismFirm sense of justiceConfused sense of justiceUnusual physical attractiveness or powerUnusual physical appearanceMasteryVictimizationEloquence, ability to communicateInability to communicateFraternityIsolationLoyaltyDivided loyaltiesDeception only for honest endsDeceptions often misguidedLoveLonelinessDeveloped sexual identityAmbivalent sexual identity

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