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LONA v. CITIBANK, N.A. Re: Exceptions To Tender & Unconscionability of Contract

LONA v. CITIBANK, N.A. Re: Exceptions To Tender & Unconscionability of Contract

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Published by Barry Fagan Esq.
Exceptions to the Tender Requirement

There are, however, exceptions to the tender requirement. Our review of the case law discloses four exceptions.

First, if the borrower’s action attacks the validity of the underlying debt, a tender is not required since it would constitute an affirmation of the debt. (Stockton, supra, (1957) 148 Cal.App.2d at p. 564) [trustor sought rescission of the contract to purchase the property and the promissory note on grounds of fraud]; Onofrio, supra, 55 Cal.App.4th at p. 424.)

Second, a tender will not be required when the person who seeks to set aside the trustee’s sale has a counter-claim or set-off against the beneficiary. In such cases, it is deemed that the tender and the counter claim offset one another, and if the offset is equal to or greater than the amount due, a tender is not required. (Hauger, supra, (1954) 42 Cal.2d at p. 755.) The Supreme Court made clear in Hauaer, supra, that the trustor, in the context of the nonjudicial foreclosure of a deed of trust, could use the right of setoff. [See 42 Cal.2d at 755.] Normally, setoff is employed defensively through an affirmative defense or cross-complaint (or formerly counterclaim) in response to an action for money. The court in Hauaer, however, saw no distinction between the right of setoff held by a trustor defending a foreclosure action or by a trustor affirmatively attacking a nonjudicial foreclosure proceeding. (Id. at 755-56.) Accordingly, the Supreme Court held that the trustor, as plaintiff, could establish the impropriety of a foreclosure by showing that the trustor was not in default on his obligation since the obligation was offset by an obligation which the beneficiary owed to him. (Id. at 753, 755.) The court further held that the trustor did not have to bring an independent action to establish the setoff. (Id. at 755.) Moreover, the court declared that unliquidated as well as liquidated amounts could be setoff; thus, the court allowed the trustor to setoff an unliquidated claim for damages for breach of contract.

Hauaer and the other cases cited above are based on former Code of Civ. Proc. § 440 which has been superseded by Code of Civ. Proc. § 431.70. The rule of these cases should not be altered because the new section appears broader than the old. Furthermore, the Legislative Committee Comment to section 431.70 not only states that the new section continues the substantive effect of section 440 but also approvingly cites Hauaer. Hauger v. Gates (1954) 42 Cal.2d 752, 755;

The right of setoff has substantial significance in contesting the validity of any foreclosure since the trustor may establish that no default occurred or, indeed, no indebtedness exists because of an offsetting amount owed by the beneficiary to the trustor.

Third, a tender may not be required where it would be inequitable to impose such a condition on the party challenging the sale. (Humboldt Savings Bank v. McCleverty (1911) 161 Cal. 285, 291 (Humboldt). In Humboldt, the defendant’s deceased husband borrowed $55,300 from the plaintiff bank secured by two pieces of property. The defendant had a $5,000 homestead on one of the properties. (Id. at p. 287.) When the defendant’s husband defaulted on the debt, the bank foreclosed on both properties. In response to the bank’s argument that the defendant had to tender the entire debt as a condition precedent to having the sale set aside, the court held that it would be inequitable to require the defendant to “pay, or offer to pay, a debt of $57,000, for which she is in no way liable” to attack the sale of her $5,000 homestead.10 (Id. at p. 291.)

Fourth, no tender will be required when the trustor is not required to rely on equity to attack the deed because the trustee’s deed is void on its face. (Dimock, supra, 81 Cal.App.4th at p. 878 [beneficiary substituted trustees; trustee's sale void where original trustee completed trustee's sale after being replaced by new trustee because original trustee no long
Exceptions to the Tender Requirement

There are, however, exceptions to the tender requirement. Our review of the case law discloses four exceptions.

First, if the borrower’s action attacks the validity of the underlying debt, a tender is not required since it would constitute an affirmation of the debt. (Stockton, supra, (1957) 148 Cal.App.2d at p. 564) [trustor sought rescission of the contract to purchase the property and the promissory note on grounds of fraud]; Onofrio, supra, 55 Cal.App.4th at p. 424.)

Second, a tender will not be required when the person who seeks to set aside the trustee’s sale has a counter-claim or set-off against the beneficiary. In such cases, it is deemed that the tender and the counter claim offset one another, and if the offset is equal to or greater than the amount due, a tender is not required. (Hauger, supra, (1954) 42 Cal.2d at p. 755.) The Supreme Court made clear in Hauaer, supra, that the trustor, in the context of the nonjudicial foreclosure of a deed of trust, could use the right of setoff. [See 42 Cal.2d at 755.] Normally, setoff is employed defensively through an affirmative defense or cross-complaint (or formerly counterclaim) in response to an action for money. The court in Hauaer, however, saw no distinction between the right of setoff held by a trustor defending a foreclosure action or by a trustor affirmatively attacking a nonjudicial foreclosure proceeding. (Id. at 755-56.) Accordingly, the Supreme Court held that the trustor, as plaintiff, could establish the impropriety of a foreclosure by showing that the trustor was not in default on his obligation since the obligation was offset by an obligation which the beneficiary owed to him. (Id. at 753, 755.) The court further held that the trustor did not have to bring an independent action to establish the setoff. (Id. at 755.) Moreover, the court declared that unliquidated as well as liquidated amounts could be setoff; thus, the court allowed the trustor to setoff an unliquidated claim for damages for breach of contract.

Hauaer and the other cases cited above are based on former Code of Civ. Proc. § 440 which has been superseded by Code of Civ. Proc. § 431.70. The rule of these cases should not be altered because the new section appears broader than the old. Furthermore, the Legislative Committee Comment to section 431.70 not only states that the new section continues the substantive effect of section 440 but also approvingly cites Hauaer. Hauger v. Gates (1954) 42 Cal.2d 752, 755;

The right of setoff has substantial significance in contesting the validity of any foreclosure since the trustor may establish that no default occurred or, indeed, no indebtedness exists because of an offsetting amount owed by the beneficiary to the trustor.

Third, a tender may not be required where it would be inequitable to impose such a condition on the party challenging the sale. (Humboldt Savings Bank v. McCleverty (1911) 161 Cal. 285, 291 (Humboldt). In Humboldt, the defendant’s deceased husband borrowed $55,300 from the plaintiff bank secured by two pieces of property. The defendant had a $5,000 homestead on one of the properties. (Id. at p. 287.) When the defendant’s husband defaulted on the debt, the bank foreclosed on both properties. In response to the bank’s argument that the defendant had to tender the entire debt as a condition precedent to having the sale set aside, the court held that it would be inequitable to require the defendant to “pay, or offer to pay, a debt of $57,000, for which she is in no way liable” to attack the sale of her $5,000 homestead.10 (Id. at p. 291.)

Fourth, no tender will be required when the trustor is not required to rely on equity to attack the deed because the trustee’s deed is void on its face. (Dimock, supra, 81 Cal.App.4th at p. 878 [beneficiary substituted trustees; trustee's sale void where original trustee completed trustee's sale after being replaced by new trustee because original trustee no long

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Published by: Barry Fagan Esq. on Dec 24, 2011
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01/24/2013

 
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Ja Ivbvt~ =??3+ ~cf celf e` pkija~j`` ian ippfkkia~ Geait W! Keai #Keai* rit tekn i~ iaeagvnjdjik `e}fdketv}f tikf! ^c}ff lea~ct ki~f}+ Keai `jkfn ~cjt id~jea ibijat~ ~cfkfanf}+ ~cf ~}vt~ff+ ~cf le}~bibf m}ehf}+ ian ~cf tf}jdf} e` ~cf keia+ ikkfbjab i i}jf~ze` dkijlt+ jadkvnjab i divtf e` id~jea ~e tf~ itjnf ~cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf!
 
Ja Liz =?9?+ Dj~jmiah #~cf kfanf}* ian FLD #~cf keia tf}jdf}* `jkfn i le~jea `e}tvlli}z gvnblfa~ ~ci~ dcikkfabfn ~cf eakz }flijajab dkijl ibijat~ ~cfl+ ~cf divtf e`id~jea ~e tf~ itjnf ~cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf! ^cfz i}bvfn ~ci~ Keai7 #9* cin `ijkfn ~e lihf iikjn ~fanf} e``f}+ rcjdc rit }fyvj}fn ~e tf~ itjnf ~cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf8 #=* cin `ijkfn ~e}fmv~ ~cf p}ftvlp~jea ~ci~ ~cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf rit ikjn rj~c fjnfadf e` j}}fbvki}j~z ja ~cftikf p}edfnv}f8 ian #4* cin ekva~i}jkz fa~f}fn ja~e ~cf keiat! @janjab ae ~}jimkf jttvf e`li~f}jik `id~+ ~cf ~}jik dev}~ b}ia~fn ~cf le~jea `e} tvlli}z gvnblfa~!
 
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^cf }fde}n neft ae~ dea~ija depjft e` Keai"t keia ippkjdi~jea! I~ nfpetj~jea+ Keai~ft~j`jfn ~ci~ ~cf keia ian ~j~kf nedvlfa~t rf}f ja cjt ailf eakz ian ~ci~ rcfa cftjbafn ~cf keia nedvlfa~t+ cf njn ae~ vanf}t~ian rci~ cf rit tjbajab8 j~ -rfa~ f}z`it~+- ian ~cf le}~bibf m}ehf}t njn ae~ bjf cjl -~ee been e` ia fspkiai~jea!- ^cevbcKeai ~ft~j`jfn ~ci~ ~cf le}~bibf m}ehf}t njn ae~ fspkija rci~ ~cf nedvlfa~t rf}f+ ~ci~cf njn ae~ ith+ ian ~ci~ cf tjbafn i~ kfit~ eaf nedvlfa~ rj~cev~ }finjab j~+ cf ikte~ft~j`jfn ~ci~ cf njtdvttfn ~cf jaj~jik ja~f}ft~ }i~f ian ~cf jaj~jik ileva~ e` cjt lea~ckzpizlfa~t rj~c ~cf le}~bibf m}ehf}t!
 
I~ vahaera ~jlft+ @}iahkja @jaiadjik ittjbafn j~t ja~f}ft~ ja ~cf `j}t~ keia ~e Dj~jmiah+FLD mfdilf ~cf -tf}jdf} e` ~cf keia+- ian Yvikj~z Keia Tf}jdf De}pe}i~jea #^}vt~ff*~eeh ef} it ~}vt~ff!
 
Ja Gvaf =??2+ `jf lea~ct i`~f} tjbajab ~cf keia nedvlfa~t+ Keai nf`ivk~fn ea ~cf `j}t~keia! Ja Tfp~flmf} =??2+ ~cf ^}vt~ff }fde}nfn i ae~jdf e` nf`ivk~! ^cf ae~jdf e` nf`ivk~jnfa~j`jfn ~cf ileva~ nvf vanf} ~cf `j}t~ keia it -.44+2=6!>? it e` Tfp~flmf} 92+=??2!-
 
Ja Giavi}z =??3+ ~cf ^}vt~ff }fde}nfn i ae~jdf e` ~}vt~ff"t tikf ni~fn Nfdflmf} 49+=??2+ rcjdc tf~ ~cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf `e} Giavi}z 49+ =??3! ^cf ~}vt~ff"t tikf ritdea~javfn e} pet~peafn! Keai aff} dv}fn ~cf nf`ivk~ ian i ~}vt~ff"t tikf ritdelpkf~fn tff}ik lea~ct ki~f}! I ~}vt~ff"t nffn vpea tikf rit }fde}nfn ja Ivbvt~=??3!
 
^cf tfdean ilfanfn delpkija~ ikkfbft ~ci~ Dj~jmiah pv}dcitfn ~cf _}epf}~z i~ ~cf~}vt~ff"t tikf+ tevbc~ ~e `e}djmkz fjd~ Keai `}el cjt celf+ ian `jkfn ia vakir`vk nf~ijaf}id~jea ibijat~ cjl! ^cf }fde}n neft ae~ dea~ija iaz fjnfa~ji}z nedvlfa~t ~ci~ tvppe}~~cftf ikkfbi~jeat! Cerff}+ i~ ~cf cfi}jab ea ~cf le~jea `e} tvlli}z gvnblfa~+ me~cdevatfk injtfn ~cf dev}~ ~ci~ ~cf vakir`vk nf~ijaf} id~jea cin mffa deatekjni~fn rj~c~cjt id~jea+ ~ci~ Keai cit -mffa kjjab `e} `}ff ja ~cjt p}epf}~z `e} ~cf nv}i~jea e` ~cfid~jea+- ian ~ci~ cf cin ae~ pet~fn i -tv}f~z mean e} tfdv}j~z mean e} iaz jlpevan`vant!-
 
_]EDFNV]IK CJT^E]Z
 
Keai `jkfn cjt e}jbjaik delpkija~ ja Aeflmf} =??3! ^cf tfdean ilfanfn delpkija~`jkfn ja Gvkz =??: ailft Dj~jmiah+ FLD+ Le}~bibf M}ehf}+ ian @}iahkja it nf`fania~t!Le}~bibf M}ehf} ian j~t p}jadjpik+ ]iatelf LdHjttjdh+ `jkfn bfaf}ik nfajikt!
 
Dj~jmiah ian FLD `jkfn i tf}jft e` nflv}}f}t dcikkfabjab ~cf pkfinjabt! Ja Tfp~flmf}=??:+ ~cf dev}~ jttvfn ia e}nf} tvt~ijajab ~cfj} nflv}}f}t ~e ~cf tfdean ilfanfndelpkija~ ja pi}~! Ik~cevbc depjft e` ~cf e}nf}t ea ~cf nflv}}f}t i}f ae~ ja ~cf }fde}n+j~ ippfi}t vanjtpv~fn ~ci~ ~re e~cf} divtft e` id~jea ibijat~ Dj~jmiah ian FLD#~}ftpitt ian m}fidc e` ~cf defaia~ e` been `ij~c ian `ij} nfikjab* rf}f njtljttfn iti }ftvk~ e` ~cfj} nflv}}f}t! Idde}njab ~e ~cf }fbjt~f} e` id~jeat+ Dj~jmiah ian FLD

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