2.3 Traffic Integration Strategy
As different wireless ATM services share thesame resources, an effective interaction between theallocation algorithms is needed to maximize theutilization efficiency of the shared resources. In thefirst and second protocol , the voice connectionshave the highest priority and the VBR connectionshave the next higher priority. The ABR connectionshave the lowest priority.In the third protocol, the available transmissionslots are assigned first to active voice connections,then a minimum assigned slots are allocated to ABR traffic, then VBR traffic slots are allocated, andfinally, the remaining slots are distributed betweenABR connections according to the buffer length of each connections.
3 SOURCE MODELS3.1 Voice Source Model
A voice source generates a signal that follows a pattern of talk-spurts separated by silent gaps. Aspeech activity detector can be used to detect this pattern. Therefore, an ON/OFF model can describe avoice source: the source alternates between the ONstate where the source generates packets at rate 8kbps, and the OFF state where no packets aregenerated. Durations of talk-spurts and silent gapsare modelled as exponential distributions with meanvalues of 1 and 1.35 sec, respectively.If a voice packet is not sent within its maximumtransfer delay (MTD), it should be dropped TheMTD is set to be 16 m-sec.
3.2 VBR Source Model
The source rates are modelled as truncatedGaussian distribution between (128 – 384 kbps)with mean rate of 256 kbps. The rate of the sourcevaries every 33 m-sec (the duration of image frame)and the MTD of the VBR packet is set to be 50 m-sec.
3.3 ABR Source Model
It resembles a data source with messages of certain length. The length of the message isexponentially distributed with mean 2 k bit, and theinter-arrival time between messages is negativelyexponential distributed with mean of 100 m-sec.The MTD of the ABR packet is set to be 6 sec.
4 BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ALGORITHM
The bandwidth allocation for uplink transmission is only considered since the downlink transmission can be scheduled in the same manner as in a wired ATM switch.
4.1 Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol forWireless ATM Networks
4.1.1 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VoicetrafficThe voice connections have the higher priority.At the beginning of a talk-spurt, the mobile sends acontrol packet. When the base station knows that theconnection becomes active the base station periodically allocates slots to the connection untilthe end of talk spurt. At the end of the talk-spurt, themobile sets a flag in the last voice packet to informthe base station that the connection is no longer active.4.1.2 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VBR trafficVBR connections have the next highest priority.They only contend (send a control packet) at thesession beginning. Next, all the control informationis piggybacking on the data packets, which reducesthe contention over the real-time mini-slots. At the base station, a token pool of certain size isintroduced for each VBR connection. Tokens aregenerated at a fixed rate that is equal to the meancell rate. A token is removed from thecorresponding pool for every slot allocated to theconnectionAfter slot allocation for voice connections the basestation allocates one slot for each VBR connectionto send one of their cells and also to piggyback thecurrent traffic parameter (e.g. buffer length, celldelay) of the connection. Then the base stationallocates slots for each connection .The number of slots allocated for a connection is the minimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as; N
= min (A
) .where N
: number of slots allocated for the VBR connection.A
: number of tokens in the pool.B
: number of the packets in the mobilestation buffer.Each connection cannot send greater than 12 cells inthe frame. Within the frame, priority is given to theconnection with minimum time-of-expiry to sendtheir cells earlier.4.1.3 Slot Allocation Algorithm for ABR trafficThe base station records the buffer lengthstatus of each connection using the controlinformation transmitted by the mobile. When amessage arrives at a mobile, it sends the number of packets in the new message either piggybacked to adata packet or in a control packet.Like VBR connections a token pool is introducedfor each ABR connection. ABR connections havelower priority than voice and VBR connections. Thenumber of slots allocated for a connection is theminimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as;
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