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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal_35

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal_35

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Published by Usman Tariq

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Published by: Usman Tariq on Oct 31, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Sami A. El-Dolil
Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Comm. Eng., Faculty of Electronic Eng, Menoufya Univ.Msel_dolil@yahoo.com
This paper presents a comparison between three proposed Medium Access Control(MAC) Protocols for next generation multimedia wireless ATM (WATM)networks. To support the ATM CBR, VBR, ABR services to end users, a MAC protocol must be able to provide bandwidth on demand with suitable performanceguarantee. The protocols have been proposed to efficiently integrate multiple ATMtraffics over the wireless channel while achieving high channel utilization. Theobjective of the comparison is to highlight the merits and demerits of the three proposed protocols.
Medium access control protocol and ATM network.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wasrecommended by the InternationalTelecommunication Union (ITU-T) to be the transfer  protocol of the broadband integrated services digitalnetwork (B-ISDN). The concept of wireless ATM(WATM) was introduced to extend the capabilities of ATM to wireless arena in [1].A major issue of WATM network is theselection of a medium access control (MAC) protocol that will efficiently allocate the scarce radioresources among the competing mobile stationswhile satisfying the QoS required for each admittedconnection.Several MAC protocols are proposed for wireless ATM network [2] – [9]. In [2], a novel predictive approach is used to estimate the currentrequirements for the connections. The variable bitrate (VBR) traffic is divided into guaranteed and best effort traffic while the time to expiry algorithmis adapted for voice and VBR slot allocation. In [3],the leaky bucket algorithm with priority as well asthe cell train concept achieves a fair and efficientslot allocation. In [4], Packet Reservation MultipleAccess with Dynamic Allocation (PRMA/DA)MAC protocol adopts dynamic allocation algorithmin order to resolve the contention situation quicklyand avoid the waste of bandwidth that occurs whenthere are several unneeded request slots. However the drawback is that this protocol does not use mini-slots for the access request. In [6] the use of  piggybacking information from VBR connectionimproves the slot allocation for VBR traffic andenhances the overall protocol performance.The current paper introduces a quantitativecomparison of three proposed MAC Protocol for wireless ATM networks. The three protocols are asfollow.1. Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless ATM Networks.2. An Intelligent MAC Protocol for next generationWireless ATM Networks.3. Contention and Polling based Multiple AccessControl with minimum Piggybacking for Wireless ATM Network.Three performance metrics, namely cell loss probability, average cell delay, and throughput, areconsidered. Section II gives an overview anddescription of the proposed protocols. In section III,the source models are identified. Section IV,describes the resource allocation algorithm. Anevaluation of the performance of the proposed protocols is presented in section V. Finally, sectionVI concludes the paper.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION2.1 Air Interface Frame Structure
The proposed protocols use frequency divisionduplex (FDD) with a fixed frame length of 2 m sec. used for the uplink (UL) and the downlink (DL) channel. Fig. 1 illustrates the frame structurefor the uplink channel. The channel bit rate is 4.9Mbps and the data slot size is 53 bytes. The number of slots per frame is 24 slots. The uplink frame isdivided into control and data transmission periods,each consisting of integer number of slots. Slotsassigned for control purpose are further subdividedinto four control mini-slots with each mini-slotaccommodating reservation mini-packet.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
Control period Data Transmissionperiod
In the uplink channel, control slots provide acommunication mechanism for a mobile station tosend a reservation request during the contention phase of the connection. The data slots are providedwith contention-free mechanism during the datatransmission phase. An uplink control packet is sentwhenever a mobile station needs to inform the basestation with its traffic characteristics and sourcestatus.Feedback for the uplink control packets is sent in thedownlink control packets.
2.2 Contention Access Scheme
The first and second protocols use the samecontention scheme and the length of the control period is dynamically adjusted as a function of contention traffic load. The control mini-slots areused by the mobile stations to send their reservationrequests in contention mode using slotted Aloha protocol. To reduce the access time of real-timeconnection, which greatly affects the QoS of thereal-time services, we separate the control mini-slotsassigned to real-time and non real-time connections.The number of control mini-slots assigned to real-time and non real-time connections is adaptivelyallocated with the collision status. The total number of uplink control mini-slots ranges from 4 to 12mini-slots. A priority is given to real-timeconnections by assigning their control mini-slotsfirst according to the number of collisions occurredin the previous frame.In the third protocol, the control period is further divided into contention and polling periods. Controlslots assigned in the control period are further subdivided into four control mini-slots, some of themused as contention mini-slots and the others used as polling mini-slots. A fixed number of control mini-slots are allocated for contention and polling access.The contention mini-slots are used by voiceconnections to send their reservation requests incontention mode at the beginning of talk-spurt, whilethe poling mini-slots are used by ABR connectionsto send their buffer length status to the base station.The number of polling mini-slots are chosen suchthat the polling period will be less than or equal tothe average inter-arrival time of ABR data message(100 m-sec). Number of polling mini-slots
int (number of ABR users * (T
1 the frame structure.where,T
: Frame duration (2 m-sec).T
: Average inter-arrival time of ABR data message(100 m-sec).Int: largest integer value.Contention period is set to a constant number of control mini-slots and this number is chosen tosatisfy the required QoS for voice traffic. Thecontention process is divided to four stages:First Stage: When the connection becomes active itrandomly selects one of the 4subsequent frames to send its requestduring the contention period.Second Stage: If the connection exhibits collision inthe first stage it randomly selects oneof the 3 subsequent frames to send itsrequest during the contention period.Third Stage: If the connection exhibits collision inthe second stage it randomly selectsone of the 2 subsequent frames tosend its request during the contention period.Fourth Stage: If the connection exhibits collision inthe third stage it sends its request inevery frame until the base stationsuccessfully receives its request.In every stage the connection randomly select one of the available contention mini-slots in the selectedframe to send its reservation request. If theconnection request is correctly received during anystage the connection exit from the contention processand the base station periodically allocate slots to theconnection until the end of talk-spurt.The described contention process aims to reduce thecontention load during the contention period in eachframe, increase the probability of successfullyaccessing the network, decreasing the probability of collision, reduce the access delay time and at thesame time minimize the number of used contentionmini-slots and utilize them efficiently. Decreasingthe number of available frames for selection in eachsubsequent stage aiming to reduce the access delaytime of the connections and hence reduce the cellloss probability.
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
2.3 Traffic Integration Strategy
As different wireless ATM services share thesame resources, an effective interaction between theallocation algorithms is needed to maximize theutilization efficiency of the shared resources. In thefirst and second protocol , the voice connectionshave the highest priority and the VBR connectionshave the next higher priority. The ABR connectionshave the lowest priority.In the third protocol, the available transmissionslots are assigned first to active voice connections,then a minimum assigned slots are allocated to ABR traffic, then VBR traffic slots are allocated, andfinally, the remaining slots are distributed betweenABR connections according to the buffer length of each connections.
3 SOURCE MODELS3.1 Voice Source Model
A voice source generates a signal that follows a pattern of talk-spurts separated by silent gaps. Aspeech activity detector can be used to detect this pattern. Therefore, an ON/OFF model can describe avoice source: the source alternates between the ONstate where the source generates packets at rate 8kbps, and the OFF state where no packets aregenerated. Durations of talk-spurts and silent gapsare modelled as exponential distributions with meanvalues of 1 and 1.35 sec, respectively.If a voice packet is not sent within its maximumtransfer delay (MTD), it should be dropped TheMTD is set to be 16 m-sec.
3.2 VBR Source Model
The source rates are modelled as truncatedGaussian distribution between (128 – 384 kbps)with mean rate of 256 kbps. The rate of the sourcevaries every 33 m-sec (the duration of image frame)and the MTD of the VBR packet is set to be 50 m-sec.
3.3 ABR Source Model
It resembles a data source with messages of certain length. The length of the message isexponentially distributed with mean 2 k bit, and theinter-arrival time between messages is negativelyexponential distributed with mean of 100 m-sec.The MTD of the ABR packet is set to be 6 sec.
The bandwidth allocation for uplink transmission is only considered since the downlink transmission can be scheduled in the same manner as in a wired ATM switch.
4.1 Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol forWireless ATM Networks
4.1.1 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VoicetrafficThe voice connections have the higher priority.At the beginning of a talk-spurt, the mobile sends acontrol packet. When the base station knows that theconnection becomes active the base station periodically allocates slots to the connection untilthe end of talk spurt. At the end of the talk-spurt, themobile sets a flag in the last voice packet to informthe base station that the connection is no longer active.4.1.2 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VBR trafficVBR connections have the next highest priority.They only contend (send a control packet) at thesession beginning. Next, all the control informationis piggybacking on the data packets, which reducesthe contention over the real-time mini-slots. At the base station, a token pool of certain size isintroduced for each VBR connection. Tokens aregenerated at a fixed rate that is equal to the meancell rate. A token is removed from thecorresponding pool for every slot allocated to theconnectionAfter slot allocation for voice connections the basestation allocates one slot for each VBR connectionto send one of their cells and also to piggyback thecurrent traffic parameter (e.g. buffer length, celldelay) of the connection. Then the base stationallocates slots for each connection .The number of slots allocated for a connection is the minimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as; N
= min (A
) .where N
: number of slots allocated for the VBR connection.A
: number of tokens in the pool.B
: number of the packets in the mobilestation buffer.Each connection cannot send greater than 12 cells inthe frame. Within the frame, priority is given to theconnection with minimum time-of-expiry to sendtheir cells earlier.4.1.3 Slot Allocation Algorithm for ABR trafficThe base station records the buffer lengthstatus of each connection using the controlinformation transmitted by the mobile. When amessage arrives at a mobile, it sends the number of  packets in the new message either piggybacked to adata packet or in a control packet.Like VBR connections a token pool is introducedfor each ABR connection. ABR connections havelower priority than voice and VBR connections. Thenumber of slots allocated for a connection is theminimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as;
Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

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