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5-serat

5-serat

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Published by: hesty on Dec 26, 2011
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02/21/2013

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PENGETAHUAN BAHAN AGROINDUSTRI(TIN250)
SERAT
OlehOleh::TimTimPengajarPengajarMK PBA MK PBA ErlizaErlizaHambaliHambali, E., E.GumbiraGumbiraSaSa’ ’ idid,,TitiTitiC.C.SunartiSunarti, Ono, OnoSuparnoSuparnoDepartemenDepartemenTeknologiTeknologiIndustriIndustriPertanianPertanianFakultasFakultasTeknologiTeknologiPertanianPertanianInstitut Pertanian BogorInstitut Pertanian Bogor20092009
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Definisi
Serat (Fibre):
Material sepertirambut, berupafilamensinambungsepertibenangataudapatdipilinmenjadifilamen, benang, dantaliDapatdigunakansebagaimaterial kompositDapatdibuatlembaransepertikertas
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Jenis Serat
Seratalami
Seratbuatanmanusia(man made fibre)atauseratsintetik 
Serat Alami
:SeratTanamanSeratHewanSeratMineral
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Estimasi produksi tahunan dari tanaman serat danselulosa di Indonesia(2000-2005)
Eucalyptus 
0,5Sisal79,9Kapuk5,9Serat, seperti jute8,9Kapas0,6Abaca
Jumlah (1000 ton)Tanaman
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Dimensi dan komposisi kimia serat tanaman
28491518-301-2
Eucalyptus 
Serat kayu
:19-2432-4822-32121.2Bagas tebu 7-1454-6612-1715-301.5-4Sisal 13-15433219-2019-22Kapuk 1-288-963-618-2810-40Kapas 21-3136-4315-16Bambu 5-1855-6418-2313-294-8Abaca
Serat non-kayu:LigninSelulosaHemiselulosaLebar (µm)Panjang(µm)Jenis Serat
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Serat Tanaman 
UmumnyaberupaselulosaContoh: kapas, linen, jute, flax,ramie, sisal danhemp.Manfaatseratselulosa
kertas& kain
 
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KatagoriSeratTanaman
(1)Seed Fibre/SeratBiji-bijianContoh: kapasdankapo
Kapok (Ceibapentandra 
)
Kapas 
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(2)Leaf Fibre /SeratDaun
Contoh: Sisal & Agave
 Agave(Agaveattenuata) 
Sisal Fiber
Sisal (Agavesisalana) 
Sisal rope
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(3)BastFibre/Skin Fibre
Seratyang berasaldarikulitataubagianbatangyang keras
Seratyang mempunyai
tensile strength 
(kekuatantarik) dibandingkanseratlainContoh: jute, kenaf, industrial hemp,ramie, rotan, flax, seratkedelai, danseratpisang
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Kenaf Ramie
Natural Soybean Protein FibreThe world’s strongest fibreHemp fiber
Canabis sativa 
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Rotan (
Calamus) 
Kenaf 
Hibiscus cannabinus 
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Rye plant (left), flax plant (center), and flax fibre (right).
Flax
Linen
tekstildariflax
 
3
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(4)Fruit Fibre /SeratBuah
Contoh: Coconut (coir) fibre
Coconut coir
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Coconut coir
Coconut husk chipCocopeat
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Rubberized coir pot
CoconutCoir mats
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(5)Stalk Fibre /SeratBatang
Contoh:Batang/merangpadi, gandum, barlei,Bambudanrumput
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Topi dari bambuTikar bambu
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Serat Hewan 
(1) Animal Hairs(Wool ataurambut)Seratyang berasaldarihewanataumamaliaberrambutCo. Wool (Sheep wool)Goat hair (Alpaca, Cashmere)Rambutkuda, dll

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