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Image Processing Oriented to Security Optimization

Image Processing Oriented to Security Optimization

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This paper presents the main aspects of the digital content security. It describes the content of watermarking, presenting the steganography concept. SteganoGraphy application is presented and the algorithm used is analyzed. Optimization techniques are introduces to minimize the risk of discovering the information embedded into digital content by means of invisible watermarking. Techniques of analyzing the digital content results and identify the possible countermeasures for optimizing the steganography algorithm are presented.
This paper presents the main aspects of the digital content security. It describes the content of watermarking, presenting the steganography concept. SteganoGraphy application is presented and the algorithm used is analyzed. Optimization techniques are introduces to minimize the risk of discovering the information embedded into digital content by means of invisible watermarking. Techniques of analyzing the digital content results and identify the possible countermeasures for optimizing the steganography algorithm are presented.

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12/26/2011

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Journal of Mobile, Embedded and Distributed Systems, vol. II, no. 1, 2010
 
ISSN 2067
 –
4074
8
 
Image Processing Oriented to Security Optimization
Ion IVAN, Adrian VISOIU, Mihai DOINEA
Economic Informatics Department, Academy of Economic StudiesPta. Romana 6, sector 1, Bucharest, ROMANIAionivan@ase.ro, adrian.visoiu@csie.ase.ro, mihai.doinea@ie.ase.ro
 Abstract 
: This paper presents the main aspects of the digital content security. It describes the content of watermarking, presenting the steganography concept. SteganoGraphy application is presented and the algorithmused is analyzed. Optimization techniques are introduces to minimize the risk of discovering the informationembedded into digital content by means of invisible watermarking. Techniques of analyzing the digital contentresults and identify the possible countermeasures for optimizing the steganography algorithm are presented.
Keywords 
security, watermarking, digital content, image, steganography, algorithm, image filters.
1. Digital content security
Digital content security is a concept whichis trying to protect and conserve all theaspects related to the characteristics of digital content. The characteristics of digital content are:
 
authenticity
the characteristicthat d
emonstrate that digital content isn’t
a fake;
 
integrity
proves that an original
digital content wasn’t changed without
authorization;
 
non-repudiation
the boundbetween the digital content and hismaster;
 
confidentiality
the way throughwhich a digital content is protected againstunauthorized access;The security characteristics are reflectedonto the digital content giving new ways of creating security methods and techniquesfor assuring them.A way of protecting the digital content isby doing a content management withouttoo much flaws. Content management isdescribed as a set of processes andtechnologies that manage the life cycle of digital information. For a high level of security content management must beable to manage digital contentdistributions and digital rights.The future of digital content security lies inthe power of binding uniquely the owner of a material with the product in causeassuring non-repudiation characteristic andin the same time denying anyunauthorized access, assuringconfidentiality.For example, if someone tries to buy aninterpret album from a online music storeand listen it to a device, the price paid forthis service should give the person entitledthe right to listen it but not the right tomultiple it and distribute it without anyprior permissions.Watermarking had reduced in a certaincase the digital content theft by engravingadditional information such as serialnumbers, copyrights messages into digitalcontent without altering it. The digitalsignal can be, that way, passed as longwith the copyright information without thepossibility of removing it to any user.An application of invisible watermarking issteganography, a method through whichmessages can be hidden in multimediacontent by modifying redundantinformation without the possibility of discovering it unless special analyzetechniques are used.Even so information can be encryptedusing common algorithms and thenembedded into digital content.The term of steganography is very old,dating from 1499, recorded by JohannesTrithemius in his Steganographia, atreatise on cryptography andsteganography disguised as a book onmagic but the use of it is even older datingfrom 440 BC when Herodotus mentionedtwo examples of it in
The Histories of Herodotus
:
This is a post conference paper. Parts of this paper have been published in theProceedings of the SECITC 2009Conference (printed version).
 
www.jmeds.eu
9
 
 
Demaratus sent a warning about aforthcoming attack to Greece by writing itdirectly on the wooden backing of a waxtablet before applying its beeswax surface.Wax tablets were in common use then asreusable writing surfaces, sometimes usedfor shorthand;
 
Histiaeus shaved the head of hismost trusted slave and tattooed amessage on it. After his hair had grownthe message was hidden. The purpose wasto instigate a revolt against the Persians.The word steganography is of Greek originmeaning
concealed writing
. That is whatthe SteganoGraphy application intend todo, concealing messages inside of a image.The multimedia objects used forconcealing messages are bitmap files.Bitmap files are stored in a device
independent bitmap, so called DIB formatwhich allows the operating system todisplay the bitmap on any type of displaydevice.
2. Watermarking
Watermarking is the process of embeddinginformation into digital signals like video,audio and pictures. The embeddedinformation is intended to be transmittedor copied along with the signal.Watermarking is necessary in order toidentify the owner of the original data. Fordigital images, this is the case of visiblewatermarking, where logos aresuperimposed or blended with an originalimage in order to keep visible the ownerwhenever the image is copied.When using invisible watermarkinginformation is added to the original databut this information is not directlyperceivable. An application of this type of watermarking is copyright protection. If the data is copied illegally, then the ownermay identify its property by detecting anddecoding the hidden information.Invisible watermarking algorithms havepeculiar characteristics that give thestrength of the algorithm:
 
the embedded message is difficult toperceive by a human observer;
 
the embedded message is difficult toremove; the image may be subject toprocessing like geometric distortion,resizing, data loss compression,enhancing, adjustments; in such cases,the message should be still recognizable;
 
the algorithm is applicable to allmultimedia types;
 
by decoding the embedded image theowner is identified accurately.Steganography is an application of watermarking for exchanging messagesbetween two parties. An algorithm embedsthe message into the exchanged datausing watermarking principles. Animportant application is checking theauthenticity of an image. This applicationrequires two parties, a sender and arecipient. They share a secret key, which isused by the sender to encode a hiddenmessage inside a image file. The recipientuses the key to extract the message. If themessage does not match a pattern or isundistinguishable or is altered, then thesender is not authentic and the file is notaccepted as valid.In the presented application of steganography, fragile watermarking isneeded. Fragile watermarking refers to amessage embedding that is easily alteredwhen the image suffers changes. If thedecoded message is altered, the recipientbecomes aware that the image has beenmodified from its initial state and it is notthe version issued from the authenticsender. This is the main difference frombasic watermarking, as there is a need toobserve changes in the exchangedinformation.
3. Encryption software andoptimization
For understanding the way that applicationencrypts a message we first mustunderstand the structure of a bitmap filewhich consists in a 3 or 4 parts dependingof the way that color information ispresented:
 
BITMAPHEADER
contains variousinformation about the header of the filesuch as: the signature of the file which is
BM 
; file size, a reserved 4 bytes zone andthe offset to which image representationbegins stored on 4 bytes; bitmap headersize is 14 bytes;
 
Journal of Mobile, Embedded and Distributed Systems, vol. II, no. 1, 2010
 
ISSN 2067
 –
4074
10
 
 
BITMAPINFOHEADER
with a totalof 40 bytes used presents the size of theinfo header zone, value 28 in hexadecimal;image dimensions represented by heightand width; number of planes; the colordepth given by the number of bits perpixel; compression, if there is any; totalimage size if compression was specified;horizontal and vertical resolution stored on8 bytes both; number of colors used; thenumber of important colors;
 
OPTIONAL PALLETE
representedby the color table, is present only if thenumber of bits per pixel is less or equal to8;
 
IMAGE DATA
the actual zonewhere useful information is stored.In figure 1 are presented the first 54 byteswhich are selected, meaning theinformation of both bitmap header andbitmap info header from a bitmap file withthe following attributes:
 
signature
2 bytes, value
BM 
 ASCI and 4D42h;
 
file size
4 bytes, value0010B476h meaning 1.094.774 bytes;
 
4 bytes reserved;
 
data offset
4 bytes, value 36hmeaning that the actual image data willbegin after 54 bytes at the end of theselected zone;
 
info header size
4 bytes, value28h equivalent of 40 bytes;
 
width
4 bytes, value 26Ehmeaning 622 pixels;
 
height
4 bytes, value 1B8hmeaning 440 pixels;
 
and other useful information.Fig. 1 Hexadecimal view of a bitmapFor hiding a message in a bitmap file, apassword is needed representing theactual step at which parts of the messagewill be stored by modifying the pixelsfound in the image.The process of encrypting a message ispresented in the following algorithm:1.
 
message length calculation;2.
 
storing the length of the message,only 2
24
bytes meaning that the messageis limited by the maximum value stored in3 bytes, representing the RGB colors;3.
 
total number of pixels count,width*height
1;4.
 
calculating the X and Y coordinatesbased on the value of the ASCI code of every byte read from the password codeand the dispersion component calculatedbased on the length of both message andpassword;5.
 
writing every byte of the messagestream along with a byte of the passwordcode read in reverse order at calculatedpositions.The application developed that implementsthis algorithm is briefly presented in thefollowing pictures.In figure 2, is represented the informationto hide,
HIDDEN MESSAGE 
with the keypassword
PASS
. The picture in which theencryption will take place is a BMP imageof 100x100 pixels, 32 bit representation.Fig. 2 Hidden informationThe process of hiding the message willtake every byte of the message and writeit to the image as follows:
 
the dispersion calculated for a streamlength of 28, 2 bytes for every character,and a length of the key password of 8bytes, is 8, meaning that every step atwhich a byte of the message will bewritten will be multiplied with thedispersion value;
 
the first character of the message,
,ASCI code 72, will be written after the first54 bytes along with S, the first characterin reverse order of the key password, at anoffset of 80*8, where 80 is the ASCII valueof the first character in the key password,

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