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Muscles

Muscles

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Published by: daw022 on Oct 31, 2008
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9/27/20071
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e1
Lecture Series
Muscle Tissue
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
INTRODUCTION
Motion results from alternating contraction (shortening) andrelaxation of muscles; the skeletal system provides leverageand a supportive framework for this movement.The scientific study of muscles is known as
myology 
.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
Muscle Tissue
Alternating contractionand relaxation of cellsChemical energychanged intomechanical energy
 
9/27/20072
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCLE
With few exceptions, muscles develop from
mesoderm.
Skeletal muscles of the head and extremities develop from
general mesoderm 
; the remainder of the skeletal musclesdevelop from
mesoderm of somites 
Somite—one of a paired, block-like masses of mesodermarranged segmentally alongside the neural tube of theembryo, forming the vertebral column and segmentalmusculature.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
Developmental Anatomy of the Muscular System
Develops from mesodermSomite formation –blocks of mesoderm give riseto vertebrae and skeletalmuscles of the backMuscles of head & limbs developfrom general mesoderm
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
Fusion of Myoblasts into Muscle Fibers
Mature muscle cells developed from 100 myoblasts that fuse together inthe fetus. (multinucleated)Mature muscle cells are not known to divide.Muscle growth is a result of cellular enlargement (hypertrophy) & not celldivision (hyperplasia)Satellite cells retain the ability to regenerate new cells.
 
9/27/20073
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
OVERVIEW OF MUSCLE TISSUE
Types of Muscle TissueSkeletal muscle tissue is primarily attached to bones. It isstriated and voluntary.Cardiac muscle tissue forms the wall of the heart. It isstriated and involuntary.Smooth (visceral) muscle tissue is located in viscera. It isnonstraited (smooth) and involuntary.
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
3 Types of Muscle TissueSkeletal muscle –attaches to bone, skin or fascia –striated with light & dark bands visible with scope –voluntary control of contraction & relaxation –Voluntary movement—example--walking
Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e
3 Types of Muscle TissueCardiac muscle –striated in appearance –involuntary control –autorhythmic because of built in pacemaker –Heart—pumps the blood throughout the body

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