Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
5Activity
P. 1
TAYL14-454-494.I

TAYL14-454-494.I

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 125 |Likes:
Published by orion20

More info:

Published by: orion20 on Oct 31, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
454
C h a p t e r
14
Solids–Applications
14.1
Overview
14.2
Semiconductors
14.3
The
 pn
Junction Diode
14.4
The Transistor
14.5
Further Semiconductor Applications
#
14.6
Integrated Circuits
#
14.7
The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
#
14.8
Superconductivity
#
14.9
The Digital Information Age
#
Problems for Chapter 14
#
These sections can be skipped without loss of continuity.
“There has recently been a great deal of thought spent on electronicbrains or computing machines. For applications of this sort, there aredifficulties in applying vacuum tubes because of their size and the heatwhich they produce. It seems to me that in these robot brains, thetransistor is the ideal nerve cell.” — William Shockley, 1949
14.1
Overview
In this chapter we look at some applications of the solid-state theory describedin Chapter 13.Applied solid-state physics is a vast and vitally important sub- ject.The technology arising from solid-state physics — transistors,computers,and digital communications — is changing civilization.We hope that this intro-duction,though necessarily brief and incomplete,will give you some apprecia-tion of the amazing little slivers of silicon lurking in devices all around you —your watch,car,phone,television,and PC.More and more,these devices aremanaging our lives.In Section14.2we describe the physics of semiconductors and how theelectronic properties of semiconductors can be altered in a controlled waywith tiny amounts of impurities.In Section14.3we give a semiquantitativeview of a simple but fundamentally important solid-state device,the
 pn
 junc-tion diode.In Section14.4we describe the transistor,which has been called themost important invention of the twentieth century.We look at two differenttransistor types:the bipolar junction transistor,which is used primarily as adiscrete component amplifier,and the MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductorfield-effect transistor),which is used in integrated circuits as an elementaryon/off switch.In Sections14.5and 14.6we examine a few other important ap-plications of semiconductor technology:LEDs,solar cells,CCD cameras,andthe crowning glory of the transistor technology — the integrated circuit.In
Á
TAYL14-454-494.I 2/10/03 2:51 PM Page 454
 
Section 14.2
Semiconductors
455
Section14.7we describe the scanning tunneling microscope (STM),inventedin 1983,which is now a standard analytical tool in solid-state laboratoriesaround the world.In 14.8 we give an overview of the phenomenon of super-conductivity,in which the electrical resistance of some solids drops to zerowhen the solid is cooled below a certain critical temperature.We conclude thischapter with a look at information theory — how best to store and transmitdigital data — and how this has made the digital information age possible.
14.2
Semiconductors
We saw in Section 13.5that a metal has a partially full conduction band,whilean electrical insulator has a large band gap,typically 3 to 5eV in width,sepa-rating a full valence from an empty conduction band.As shown in Fig.14.1,a
semiconductor
is simply an insulator with a relatively small band gap,around1eV or less.In the periodic table semiconductors lie in the vicinity of the groupIV elements,between metals on the left and insulators on the right.Table14.1lists the band gaps of some semiconductors and insulators.Because the bandgap is so narrow in semiconductors,electrons can be thermally excited fromthe valence band into the conduction band,where they can carry a current.To understand the thermal activation of electrons in semiconductors,wewill have to use a result from statistical mechanics,which is covered inChapter15.According to statistical mechanics,for a quantum system with afixed number of particles in thermal equilibrium at temperature
,the proba-bility that the system is in a particular quantum state
i
,with energy isgiven by (Eq.15.2),
(14.1)
P
1
i
2
r
e
-
E
i
>
kT
E
i
,
P
1
i
2
EnergyMetalInsulatorSemiconductor
FIGURE 14.1
Band structure of a metal, aninsulator, and a semiconductor.The shaded regions indicateoccupied electronic states.In insulators a large band gapseparates a fullvalence band from an emptyconduction band. Insemiconductors the band gap issmall enough thatelectrons can be thermally excitedfrom the valence band to theconduction band.
1
E
g
L
1 eV
21
E
g
L
5 eV
2
TABLE 14.1
The band gap and dielectric constant for selected semiconductors and insulators.The band gap depends somewhat on temperature;it decreases with increasing temper-ature.is one of a few insulators with an anomalously large dielectric constant.
DielectricMaterial at T 300 K Constant
Ge0.6615.8Semi-conductorsSi1.1711.7GaAs1.4313.1Insulators3.03110Diamond5.45.5TiO
2
 E
g
1
eV
2
TiO
2
1
E
g
2
TAYL14-454-494.I 2/10/03 2:51 PM Page 455
 
456
Chapter 14
Solids–Applications
*The factor of 2 in the ratio arises from the fact that the Fermi energy is in themiddle of the band gap.Deriving this would take us too far afield for the present dis-cussion.Afficionados may note that the relation (14.1) applies to the semiconductor asa whole,since it is a multiparticle quantum system in which the number of particles isconstant and which can occupy any of its multiparticle quantum states without restric-tion;however,it does not apply to individual electrons in the semiconductor since elec-trons,being fermions obeying the Pauli principle,can occupy only single-electron statesthat are not already occupied by other electrons.
E
g
>
2
kT
where
k
is Boltzmann
s constant and
is the absolute temperature in kelvins.From this relation,it is possible to derive the fact that the concentration
n
(number per volume) of conduction electrons thermally excited into the con-duction band is proportional to an exponential factor*involving the width of the band gap
(14.2)
Recall from Section3.7that at room temperature the thermal energy is rough-ly Because of the exponential dependence on theratio in (14.2),a band gap of 1eV in a semiconductor at room tem-perature results in a significant concentration of conduction electrons,whilefor an insulator with a band gap of 3eV or more,the concentration of ther-mally activated carriers is essentially zero.
Example 14.1
At room temperature germanium has a band gap of and aconduction electron concentration of about (Note howsmall this is compared to range of concentrations in metals,to )Estimate the conduction electron concentration in diamond,which has aband gap of 5.4eV.Using equation (14.2),we can set up an approximate ratio of conductionelectron concentrations in two different materials,which we label 1 and 2.
(14.3)
This relation is only approximate because the proportionality constant in(14.2) varies from material to material by a factor of 10 or so;however,theexponential factor usually dominates the behavior,as this example will show.Comparing germanium and diamond,the band gap difference is 5.4eV0.7eV 4.7eV.With equation (14.3) becomesThis is such an infinitesimal concentration (much less than 1 electron percubic kilometer of diamond!) that the conduction electron density in pure di-amond can be taken to be zero.Actual diamond samples have a carrier con-centration much greater than this (still tiny),but this is due to unavoidableimpurities,not thermal activation across the band gap.A pure semiconductor,such as pure silicon or pure GaAs,is often calledan
intrinsic semiconductor
.In contrast,an
impurity semiconductor
is one that
n
diamond
L
n
Ge
 
e
-
1
4.7
2>1
2
*
0.025
2
=
1
2
*
10
13
cm
-
3
2
e
-
94
L
10
-
28
cm
-
3
kT
room
=
0.025 eV,
=-
n
2
n
1
L
e
-
E
2
>
2
kT
e
-
E
1
>
2
kT
=
e
-
1
E
2
-
E
1
2>
2
kT
10
23
cm
-
3
.10
22
n
=
2
*
10
13
cm
-
3
.
E
g
=
0.67 eV
E
g
>1
2
kT
2
kT
L
1
>
40 eV
=
0.025 eV.
n
r
e
-
E
g
>1
2
kT
2
E
g
,
TAYL14-454-494.I 2/10/03 2:51 PM Page 456

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
AshokAkarapu liked this
eltytan liked this
Shah Alam liked this
DNIndustry liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->