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5 Hedge

5 Hedge

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Published by krrahul35
related with mughal history....INDIA
related with mughal history....INDIA

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Published by: krrahul35 on Dec 27, 2011
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07/29/2013

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African Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin--MadisonRegents of the University of Wisconsin System
"Companies Are Always Ungrateful": James Phipps of Cape Coast, a Victim of the AfricanTradeAuthor(s): David HenigeReviewed work(s):Source:
African Economic History,
No. 9 (1980), pp. 27-47Published by:
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Accessed: 19/12/2011 05:24
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 African Economic History.
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"COMPANIESAREALWAYSUNGRATEFUL":JAMESPHIPPSOFCAPECOAST,A VICTIM OF THEAFRICANTRADE1DavidHenigeUniversityof Wisconsin-MadisonIThe General.. .isagoodServant totheCompany;assiduous anddiligent2TheimpingementofEuropeontherest oftheworldwhichbeganin thefifteenthcenturytook on numerous forms.Fromtheveryfirstsomeofittook theformofterritorialaggrandisementbutinotherinstancesitlongamountedto nomore thanasustainedcuriositywhich wassometimessatisfied,sometimesnot.Those forms whichwe cantermexpansionalsoassumedvariousguises.Speakingofonlyoneaspectofthisprocess--therelationshipsofEuropeanswiththeindigenouspeopleswithwhomtheycameinto contact--itispossibletodiscern several variations.At oneextremewould bethosecases,likeMauritiusandtheAzores,wherefewifanylocalpeopleswereinvolvedsothat thesettlingEuropeanswereeasilyabletoestablishsocialandpoliticalsystemswhichreplicatedthoseinEuropetotheextent thatlocalconstraintspermitted.Inothercases,notablytheCaribbeanislandsandthe AtlanticseaboardofNorthAmerica,theEuropeansdroveawayor exter-minatedtheindigenouspeoplesandthen establishedlifestylesforthemselves whichsoughtto emulateandimproveonthosetheyhadleftbehind.Athirdcategoryofexpansionwouldincludethoseareas wherehighlevelsofpopulationandpoliticalandmaterial cultureprecludedtheremoval oftheexistingsocieties.Herepluralsocieties,in whichtherewas acertainamountofmutualcultural andracialabsorption,developed.Theclassicexamplesforthisearly periodwould betheHispano-IndiansocietiesofLatinAmerica.Insomeareas,althoughtheEuropeansdid notestablishathoroughterritorialcontrol,theywere ablefor onereasonoranotherto exerciseratherwidespreadjuris-diction,amountinginsomeinstancesto de factosuzerainty.The Dutchin Java wouldbeacase inpoint.Often,however,Europeanswere unableorunwillingto ventureonanyformofgovernanceoracculturationatall. Lackofman-AfricanEconomicHistory,no.9(1980)
 
DAVIDHENIGEpoweror of anintensiveenough interest,fears ofhighmortality,orthepresenceofstronglocal states meantthat theEuropeansoperatedinmanyareas onsufferance,either that of theirowngovernmentsor ofthe localpoliticalauthorities.InsomeofthesesituationsEuropeannations were ableeventuallytoexerciseauthorityto thepoint where,iftheir aims remainedmodest,theywere ablelargelytocontrol their own affairsprovided theyexercisedrestraint.However,in afewcases--the Dutch inJapan,theEnglishin Basracometomind--theyremainedtotallysubservient to the localauthorities. Mostoftheexamplesofthis formofEuropean expansionweretradingfactories,established totaplocal sources ofwealth,toprovideastrategicifprecarious presence,orto serveasintermediatestations onfar-flungtraderoutes.TheBritish, Dutch,and DanishfactoriesontheGoldCoast--businessventures above all--fit bestintothislastcategoryduringthe seventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.Establishedbychartered stockcompanies,eachsuchpostwasdesignedtoproduce profitsratherthanprestige,revenue rather thanterritory,tradegoodsratherthan tribute. Asaresult,theextantrecordsofthesecompanies,particularlythoseof theEnglish,consistvery largelyofaccounts,accounts,andyetmoreaccounts.Suchmaterialshavetheirownvalueofcourse,butbythemselvestheyareinescapablyone-dimensional;we learnfrom themverylittleabout theAfricansocietieson whoseperi-metersthese factoriesexisted,oraboutthelivesofthemenwho servedin them.Most ofthesediedon thecoast,while fewof thosewho returnedhome wereever heard fromagain,retiringinto a comfortableobscurityfromwhichtheyrarelyemerged.Guidedbytheirsources,historiansofEnglishactivitieson theGoldCoasthave so farfocused onparticularaspectsofthe tradethere--itsprofitability,the numbersofslavesboughtandshipped,theirdestinations andlossesenroute,discernibleshiftsintradingpatterns--oronthemortalityrates ofthepersonnel,whose collectivedeaths have been more studied thantheir collectivelives.
3
Therecords oftheRoyalAfricanCompany,whichadministered theEnglishfactories between1674and1752, preservedetailsofthetenureofits servants on thecoast--whentheyarrived,wherethey served,whentheydied orreturnedhome--and almostnothingelseaboutthem.Weare unableto learnmuchaboutwhattheydidandevenless about howtheyfeltaboutthemselves,theiremployment,or the Africansocietiesaroundthem.Onlyfour oftheverylargenumberof men whoparticipatedinthe administrationoftheEnglishfactoriesontheGold Coast can besaid to havedetectablepersonae.4Twoofthese wereSirDalbyThomas(1703-1711),who was anadeptself-publicistabout whose administrationquiteabitof oddsandendshavesurvived,andHenryGreenhill(1680-1684)whoservedasNavalCommissioneratPlymouthand Portsmouth between1691and1708butabout whose careeroutsidethesepostsalmostnothingis known.5Theremaining Agentshave sofarremained facelessifnotquite nameless,withtheexceptionofJamesPhipps,who was28

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