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# Excel Advanced Formulas

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Published by: sergio vieira on Oct 31, 2008

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01/15/2013

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IN THIS CHAPTER
4
Excelis a versatile program with many uses, fromacting as a checkbook to a flat-file database-management system, to an equation solver, to a glo-rified calculator. For most business users, however,Excel’s forte is building models that enable them toquantify particular aspects of the business. Theskeleton of the business model is made up of thechunks of data entered, imported, or copied intothe worksheets. But the lifeblood of the model andthe animating force behind it is the collection of formulas that summarize data, answer questions,and make predictions. You saw in Chapter 3, “Building Basic Formulas,”that, armed with the humble equals sign and a setof operators and operands, you can cobble togetheruseful, robust formulas. But Excel has many othertricks up its digital sleeve, and these techniquesenable you to create muscular formulas that cantake your business models to the next level.
Working with Arrays
Whenyou work with a range of cells, it mightappear as though you’re working with a singlething. In reality, however, Excel treats the range asa number of discrete units. This is in contrast with the subject of this section:the array. An
array
is a group of cells or values thatExcel treats as a unit. You create arrays either by running a function that returns an array result (suchas
DOCUMENTS()
—see the section in this chaptertitled “Functions That Use or Return Arrays”) orby entering an
array formula
, which is a single for-mula that either uses an array as an argument orenters its results in multiple cells.
Working with Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85Using Iteration and Circular References . . . . .90Consolidating Multisheet Data . . . . . . . . . . . .92Applying Data-Validation Rules to Cells . . . . .98Using Dialog Box Controls on aWorksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Reproduced from the book
2004,Que Publishing
. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., 800 East 96th Street,Indianapolis, IN 46240. Written permission from Pearson Education, Inc. is required for all other uses.
Visitquepublishing.comto buy thisbook and save10% on yourpurchase.Register tobecome a sitemember andsave up to 30%on all purchaseseveryday.

Using Array Formulas
Here’sa simple example that illustrates how array formulas work. In the Expenses workbook shown in Figure 4.1, the 2005 BUDGET totals are calculated using a separate formula foreach month, as shown here: January 2005 BUDGET
=C11*\$C\$3
February 2005 BUDGET
=D11*\$C\$3
March 2005 BUDGET
=E11*\$C\$3
4
Chapter 4 Creating Advanced Formulas
86
Figure 4.1
This worksheet usesthree separate formulasto calculate the 2005BUDGET figures.
You can replace all three formulas with a single array formula by following these steps:
1.
Select the range that you want to use for the array formula. In the 2005 BUDGETexample, you’d select C13:E13.
2.
Type the formula and, in the places where you would normally enter a cell reference,type a range reference that includes the cells you want to use.
Don’t
—I repeat,
don’t
press Enter when you’re done. In the example, you’d enter
=C11:E11*\$C\$3
.
3.
To enter the formula as an array, press Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The 2005 BUDGET cells (C13, D13, and E13) now all contain the same formula:
{=C11:E11*\$C\$3}
Notice that the formula is surrounded by braces ({ }). This identifies the formula as an array formula. (When you enter array formulas, you never need to enter these braces yourself;Excel adds them automatically.)

87
Working with Arrays
Understanding Array Formulas
Tounderstand how Excel processes an array, you need to keep in mind that Excel alwayssets up a correspondence between the array cells and the cells of whatever range you enteredinto the array formula. In the 2005 BUDGET example, the array consists of cells C13, D13,and E13, and the range used in the formula consists of cells C11, D11, and E11. Excel setsup a correspondence between array cell C13 and input cell C11, D13 and D11, and E13 andE11. To calculate the value of cell C13 (the January 2005 BUDGET), for example, Excel just grabs the input value from cell C11 and substitutes that in the formula. Figure 4.2shows a diagram of this process.
4
Because Excel treats arrays as a unit,you can’t move or delete part of an array.If you need to workwith an array,you must select the whole thing.If you want to reduce the size of an array,select it,activate the formula bar,and then press Ctrl+Enter to change the entry to a normal formula.Youcan then select the smaller range and re-enter the array formula.Note that you can select an array quickly by activating one of its cells and pressing Ctrl+/.
N       O       T       E
Array cellC13D13E13Input cell fromformulaC11D11E11What formulabecomes=C11*\$C\$3=D11*\$C\$3=E11*\$C\$3Array formula: ={C11:E11*\$C\$3}
Figure 4.2
When processing anarray formula,Excel setsup a correspondencebetween the array cellsand the range used inthe formula.
Array formulas can be confusing, but if you keep these correspondences in mind, youshould have no trouble figuring out what’s going on.
Array Formulas That Operate on Multiple Ranges
In the preceding example, the array formula operated on a single range, but array formulasalso can operate on multiple ranges. For example, consider the Invoice Template worksheetshown in Figure 4.3. The totals in the Extension column (cells F12–F16) are generated by aseries of formulas that multiply the item’s price by the quantity ordered:
CellFormula
F12
=B12*E12
F13
=B13*E13
F14
=B14*E14
F15
=B15*E15
F16
=B16*E16

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