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A Holistic Approach for Optimizing Lifetime of IEEE 802.15.4-ZigBee Networks

A Holistic Approach for Optimizing Lifetime of IEEE 802.15.4-ZigBee Networks

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Published by Usman M. Nooruddin

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10/30/2013

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A Holistic Approach for Optimizing Lifetime of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Networks withDeterministic Guarantee of Real-Time Flows
Myung-Gon Park, Kang-Wook Kim, and Chang-Gun Lee
School of Computer Science and EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoul, Korea Email:
{
mgpark, kwkim
}
@rubis.snu.ac.kr, cglee@snu.ac.kr 
 
342513462516GTS for 3GTS for 23213465465321
(2) power configuration
− routing decision −(1) cluster−tree construction(3) duty−cycle scheduling
 
end−to−end delaynetwork lifetime
GTS for 3GTS for 5GTS for 4
1
1
2
2
cluster
3
cluster
3
cluster
4
cluster
4
SD
3
SD
4
BI 
3
BI 
4
Figure 1. A holistic optimization of a ZigBee network 
 Abstract
—IEEE 802.15.4 is a global standard designedfor emerging applications in low-rate wireless personal areanetworks (LR-WPANs). The standard provides nice featuressuch as a beacon-enabled mode and guaranteed time slotsfor real-time data delivery. However, how to optimally operatethose features is still an open issue. For the optimal operationof the features, this paper proposes a holistic optimizationmethod that jointly optimizes three cross-related problems:(1) cluster-tree construction, (2) nodes’ power configuration,and (3) duty-cycle scheduling. Our holistic optimization methodfinds the solution for the three problems such that all the real-time packets can be delivered within their deadlines in themost energy-efficient way. Our simulation study shows that,comparing with existing methods, our holistic optimizationcan guarantee the on-time delivery of all real-time packetswhile significantly saving the energy and hence significantlyincreasing the network lifetime.
 Keywords
-real-time; sensor network; holistic optimization
I. I
NTRODUCTION
IEEE 802.15.4 is a global standard for emerging ap-plications in low-rate wireless sensor networks. Its target-ing applications include health monitoring, disaster detec-tion/reporting, target tracking, and factory automation. Inthose applications, a number of real-time data flows areongoing and their time-sensitive packets need to be deter-ministically delivered on-time. This real time guarantee mustbe provided with an energy-efficient manner such that thenetwork lifetime can be maximized. Such energy-efficientreal-time guarantee is important because the replacement of batteries of sensor nodes is not only very cumbersome butalso practically impossible in some applications such as adensely deployed large-scale sensor network.For the energy efficiency and the real-time guarantee, thebeacon-enabled mode of IEEE 802.15.4 provides nice fea-tures such as synchronized operations with small duty cyclesand guaranteed time slots for collision-free transmissions.However, how to optimally utilize those features is still anopen issue. In this paper, we propose a holistic approach tooptimally configuring the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-treenetwork jointly addressing the three cross-related problems:(1) logical cluster-tree construction, (2) power configura-tion for nodes, and (3) duty-cycle scheduling of clusters.Consider a sensor network that has six ZigBee nodes andtwo real-time data flows as shown in Figure 1. In order toguarantee the end-to-end deadline of every data packet of thegiven flows, we first have to construct the logical cluster-treesuch that packets can be routed along the tree structure. Thisproblem of logical cluster-tree construction is directly relatedto the power configuration problem of all nodes since thepowers of child and parent nodes need to be properly config-ured such that their RF signals are bi-directionally reachable.Once a cluster-tree is determined, we also have to determinethe duty cycle scheduling of all the clusters such that eachnode in a cluster can send a packet using its dedicatedGTS (guaranteed time slot) within the cluster’s active periodcalled a SD (superframe duration), which periodically comesat every BI (beacon interval). This duty-cycle schedulingproblem should also determine the lengths of SDs and BIsof all the clusters and allocations of GTSs to all the nodes.Thus, the duty-cycle scheduling problem is inter-dependentwith the cluster-tree construction. Furthermore, the resultingcluster-tree and duty-cycle scheduling affect the end-to-end delay of all the real-time flows. Also, the resultingpower-configuration and duty-cycle scheduling affect theoverall energy consumption and in turn the network lifetime.Therefore, we need to jointly address all the three problemstogether in order to guarantee all the real-time flows inthe most energy efficient way, as we propose in this paper.Existing works try to solve only a part of these three cross-related problems. For example, Han addresses only the duty-cycle scheduling problem assuming that the logical cluster-tree and power configurations are already given [1]. Ergenet al. presents an energy efficient routing method with delayguarantee for wireless sensor networks assuming that duty-cycle scheduling and power configurations are already given[2]. However, none of existing works propose a holisticsolution for optimally solving all the three cross-relatedproblems together.The rest of this paper is organized as follows: The nextsection surveys the related work. Then, Section III overviewsthe IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard and formally defines theproblem to be addressed in this paper. Section IV proposesour holistic optimization framework. Section V presents ourexperiments. Finally, Section VI concludes this paper.
 
II. R
ELATED
W
ORK
Recently, the issues for real-time data delivery has beenextensively addressed in different settings of wireless sensornetworks. In a broad scope, real-time MAC protocols, real-time routing protocols, and real-time MAC/routing cross-layer protocols are proposed. For example, the implicitEDF [3] is a hard real-time MAC protocol that provides acollision-free real-time packet scheduling scheme exploitingthe periodic nature of real-time data flows. The dual-modereal-time MAC protocol [4] provides both bounded worstcase delays for real-time packets and good average delaysfor best-effort packets by switching between protected andunprotected modes. On the other hand, RPAR [5] is an exam-ple of real-time routing protocols that meets the applicationspecified delay bound requirements at a low energy costby dynamically configuring transmission power and routingdecisions. Ergen et al. [2] propose another routing methodthat finds the optimal routing paths for real-time data flowsin a way of maximizing the network lifetime. The methoduses a linear programming formulation to find the optimalrouting solution assuming that the power configuration andthe network topology are given as inputs. SPEED [6] is anexample of MAC/routing cross-layer protocols that supportreal-time packet deliveries. SPEED is designed to providesoft end-to-end deadline guarantees by enforcing a uniformpacket delivery speeds all over the entire network throughfeedback control in the MAC layer and geographic packetforwarding in the routing layer. MMSPEED [7] extendsthe SPEED protocol by providing multiple speeds in orderto provide service differentiations for different classes of real-time flows. All the above methods, however, are de-signed for sensor network settings far different from IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee standard. Thus, they cannot be applied tobuild the optimal IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee network. Moreimportantly, even in this broad scope, there is no exist-ing work that holistically optimizes topology construction,power configuration, and packet scheduling, all together.In the specific scope of the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee stan-dard [8], Koubˆaa et al. propose algorithms to schedule SD’sof all the clusters in a collision-free way for the givenvalues of SDs and BIs for all the clusters [9]. However,they do not address how to optimally determine the SDand BI values for all the cluster. In [1], Han addresses theoptimal duty-cycle scheduling problem, that is, optimallyfinding the SD, BI values and also GTS allocations forguaranteeing all the real-time flows while maximizing thenetwork lifetime. Han’s approach, however, addresses onlythe duty-cycle scheduling problem assuming that the cluster-tree topology and power configurations are given as inputs.None of the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee related work addressesthe holistic optimization problem that considers cluster-treeconstruction, power configuration, and duty-cycle schedul-ing, all together.III. IEEE 802.15.4/Z
IG
B
EE
O
VERVIEW AND
P
ROBLEM
D
ESCRIPTION
The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard provides a beacon-enabled mode for energy-efficient delivery of real-timepackets. In the beacon-enabled mode, all the ZigBee nodesfirst need to form a logical cluster-tree network. As anexample, Figure 2(a) shows physical deployments of ZigBeenodes, denoted by
1
,
2
,
···
,
8
. The nodes form a logicalcluster-tree as in Figure 2(b) where
1
,
2
, and
3
forma cluster with
3
as the cluster head,
7
and
8
formanother cluster with the head of 
7
, and
3
,
4
,
5
,
6
,and
7
form an upper level cluster with the head of 
4
.This tree formation is necessary in two folds: (1) routingof packets and (2) scheduling of packets. First, the routingpath of a packet from a source node
s
and a destinationnode
d
is simply determined along the structure of thecluster-tree. For example, the routing path from
5
to
2
is
5
4
3
2
. Second, the packet transmissiontimes are scheduled in a cluster-based collision-free manner.More specifically, each cluster periodically has its dedicatedactive duration called
SD
(Superframe Duration) which isdisjoint with other clusters’
SD
s as shown in Figure 2(c).Only within the cluster’s
SD
, all the nodes of the clusterwake up and communicate each other. For this, the head of each cluster sends a beacon frame at every beacon period
BI 
as shown in Figure 2(c). With the beacon frame, allthe nodes belong to the cluster synchronize. Each beaconperiod
BI 
k
of a cluster
k
is composed of the cluster’s activeperiod
SD
k
and its inactive period as shown in Figure 3. The
SD
k
contains a contention access period (
CAP 
k
), in whichnodes compete in a slotted CSMA/CA manner for non real-time packets, and a contention-free period (
CF
k
), in whichnodes transmit their real-time packets with their dedicatedguaranteed time slots (
GT
k
s).As such, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard provides base-line features for routing and scheduling real-time packets.However, for the proper operation of the ZigBee network,we still have to find the optimal configuration of all theoperating parameters for
cluster-tree construction
BIs, SDs for all the clusters and GTS allocations forthe member nodes and
power configuration of all the nodes such that thedesired cluster-tree can be formed.In order to formally define this holistic optimizationproblem, we give necessary definitions and notations in thefollowing:
cluster-tree construction related definitions:
A cluster treeis represented by the parent-child relation
ω
ij
for every pairof two nodes
i
and
j
, which is defined as follows:
ω
ij
=
1
if 
i
is the parent of 
j
0
otherwise
.

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