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An Energy Model for Simulation Studies for Wireless Sensor Networks Using OMNeT++

An Energy Model for Simulation Studies for Wireless Sensor Networks Using OMNeT++

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Published by Usman M. Nooruddin

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Published by: Usman M. Nooruddin on Dec 28, 2011
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04/30/2013

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An Energy Model for Simulation Studies of WirelessSensor Networks using OMNeT++
Feng Chen, Isabel Dietrich, Reinhard German and Falko Dressler
Computer Networks and Communication SystemsUniversity of Erlangen, Germany
{
feng.chen,isabel.dietrich,german,dressler
}
@informatik.uni-erlangen.de
ABSTRACT
Simulation is frequently used to evaluate the performance of networking algorithms and techniques in wireless communi-cation networks. However, performance aspects such as thetransmission delay, the channel utilization, or the through-put provide only limited information about the feasibility of the particular approach. This is especially the case when in-vestigating Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which stressenergy-efficiency due to extremely limited power source insensor nodes. Thus, a precise evaluation of the energy effi-cient performance is demanded. In this paper, we presenta generic energy model developed for the simulation frame-work OMNeT++. The model allows to accurately evaluatethe energy performance (in terms of energy consumptionor network lifetime) of sensor networks (or in principle anywireless network), taking into account the energy consump-tion of both the radio transceiver and the CPU. The energymodel can be calibrated to arbitrary types of sensor nodesif power measurements are available for the node type. Theapplicability of the developed energy model is demonstratedin a selected application scenario: the analysis of the energyconsumption in IEEE 802.15.4 star networks. Additionally,we outline the need for more complex metrics compared tothe energy consumption of single nodes to evaluate the life-time of the whole sensor network.
1. INTRODUCTION
In the last decade, significant advances have been achievedin the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).Some of the most challenging issues that have been stud-ied are the medium access, routing strategies, clusteringschemes, and application layer dynamics. All these ap-proaches contribute to the final objective to enable designersto develop and to deploy applications under various environ-mental conditions. The idea is to provide a broad range of design variants that can be chosen and combined in order toprovide the optimal behavior of the sensor network. Mostof the approaches are targeted to improve the performanceof the wireless communication with respect to the quality of service. Therefore, all the individual algorithms and tech-niques have been analyzed with regard to their performance,e.g. the speed of adaptation to environmental changes, theend-to-end performance, and the resulting overhead.A key objective for most wireless communication networksand especially for sensor networks is to reduce the energyconsumption. Since the radio transceiver is the most criti-cal part contributing to the energy consumption on an indi-vidual sensor node, much effort has been put into designingproper network protocols that turn the radio off as long aspossible while still maintaining network connectivity. Suchenergy preserving techniques have been developed in all thelayers of the communication stack. For example, to reduceenergy waste in idle listening and overhearing, MAC pro-tocols for WSNs have largely adopted schedule-based tech-niques with fixed or varying duty-cycles. Thus, all nodesperiodically turn the radio on and off and the problem of saving energy is being reduced to finding a perfect schedul-ing scheme [15,17].Another example is the Low Power Listening (LPL) ap-proach [12], which has emerged as a physical layer tech-nique that utilizes preamble sampling to minimize idle lis-tening. LPL has recently attracted considerable researchinterest [1,9,11]. Consequently, this technique also receivesincreasing hardware support and a number of off-the-shelf radio products are being developed for application in WSNs.The evaluation and validation of the developed energy-efficient solutions is usually relying on either experimenta-tion or simulation techniques. Experimentation allows tostudy WSNs in a real-world environment which provides ac-curate measurements, especially for energy consumption, forthe hardware equipment used during the experiment. How-ever, simulation also plays a major role in most performancestudies due to a number of reasons. First, simulation tech-niques allow to study novel methods and techniques with-out the need of real deployments, which may be infeasibledue to hardware limitations or just impractical due to thenecessary implementation efforts. Furthermore, evaluatinglarge networks with hundreds or even thousands of sensornodes can typically only be done by means of simulation.Experimentation might be too expensive for such setups orinfeasible due to physical limitations. Thus, in most casesperformance evaluation is based on simulation models.Basically, two levels for sensor network simulations can bedistinguished: the single-node level and the network level.Simulators that work at the level of single sensor nodes are,for example, PowerTOSSIM [13] and Avrora [14]. They cangenerate detailed estimates for CPU cycle usage and en-ergy consumption of sensor nodes. Their main disadvan-tage is, however, that they work on executable sensor nodeprograms, which might not exist at the early stages of de-velopment. This also means that they are usually tailoredtowards only very few hardware platforms, and are difficultto adapt to other platforms. More complex modeling ap-proaches are also being developed, still focusing on a singlesensor node [8].Simulators at the network level, like OMNeT++ [16],
 
are completely independent from the sensor node hardware.This means that the estimates produced by them dependstrongly on the specific resource consumption models usedin a simulation. In most simulations, CPU usage is not con-sidered at all. Besides the classical network performancemetrics like throughput and delay, the energy performanceof WSNs has recently been evaluated in many simulationstudies – primarily using the
network lifetime
as a metric [5].We have observed a number of problems in most of thesesimulation experiments. Firstly, many energy models havenot been built accurately to reflect real operations in theradio hardware. For example, some energy models assumethat the radio consumes the same power in idle listening asin receiving state and they are ignoring the energy consump-tion in sleeping state. Furthermore, few simulation modelstake into account the transition energy cost for switchingbetween the radio operational states. Secondly, the energymodels deployed in many simulation studies have not beencalibrated using measurement results obtained from experi-ments on real hardware platforms. Finally, the energy con-sumption of the micro controller is frequently not consid-ered.Aiming to overcome the described drawbacks in existingenergy models, we contribute to the current research by pre-senting a more accurate energy model for the OMNeT++simulation framework [16]. Our energy model distinguishesthe different power consumption rates in each radio stateand it explicitly considers the necessary transition energy.A simple CPU model has been built to estimate the energyconsumption for computationally intensive operations. Ben-efiting from published measurement results from hardwareexperiments, our energy model can be easily calibrated to anumber of radio transceivers and micro controllers.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Sec-tion 2 introduces the energy model that we developed forOMNeT++. In Section 3, we demonstrate its applicabil-ity in a case study for IEEE 802.15.4-based star networks.Section 4 outlines the necessary metrics for evaluating thenetwork lifetime based on the energy measurement of singlesensor nodes. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper.
2. ENERGY MODEL IN OMNET++
In this section, we describe the functionalities and imple-mentation details of our energy model in OMNeT++.
2.1 Principles and Operation
We developed the energy model with respect to the op-eration principles of the OMNeT++ simulation framework.OMNeT++ is a public-source, component-based discrete-event simulation environment. Its INET framework, a setof modules for standard network protocols, provides supportfor many network protocols such as IEEE 802.11 (WLAN),TCP/IP, and many others. Additionally, mobility modelsand traffic models are available. Recently, a number of mod-els for ad hoc and sensor network protocols have been inte-grated including our model of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol [4].Figure 2 shows the interior of a typical wireless node inOMNeT++. The energy (or battery) model has been placednext to the protocol stack because the consumption of en-ergy can occur at different places in a node. Communicationwith the other modules in the node is realized using a noti-fication board mechanism. The notification board is a mod-ule provided by the INET framework. The board allows tomodel cross-layer communication and crosscutting concernssuch as energy without breaking the layered architecture.In that way, the energy model can serve as a plug-in to var-ious models of wireless protocols in OMNeT++. Its param-eters are the initial battery energy, the radio power in differ-ent working states, and the CPU power. Based on these con-figurations, the model accounts for energy usage due to ra-dio transmissions and receptions, CPU consumption (basedon radio activity), and additional CPU consumptions basedon varying sensor programs (changes in sensor programs arereceived via the notification board). For demonstration pur-poses, the remaining energy on each node can be displayedin animations during the simulation run.Depending on the purpose of the study, the energy modelcan be configured to execute an arbitrary action upon ex-haustion of the battery power. Currently, the model can beconfigured to terminate the simulation in one of the follow-ing two cases:
When the first node exhausts its battery power, or
when a specified node (e.g. the central node) dies orall nodes in the network die.For the second case, the dead nodes have to be excludedfrom network communication. In our model, we implementthis by dynamically disconnecting the
radioIn
gate of thedead node from the channel module and reconnecting it toan empty gate. In addition, all other activities includingstatistics recording in each module of the dead node need tobe terminated as well. To achieve this, the event of batteryexhaustion is put on the notification board of the dead node,so that all relevant modules of the node can act accordingly.In the following, we introduce the implementation details inthe energy model.
2.2 Implementation Details
For the implementation, we have to distinguish betweenenergy modeling for the radio transceiver and for the CPU.
2.2.1 Radio transceiver 
The energy model for the radio is built by consideringtwo sources of energy consumption: the steady state energyand the transition energy. The steady state energy is con-sumed while the radio is working in one of its working states.The transition energy is consumed by the radio during theswitching process from one working state to another. Ourenergy model supports a typical radio transceiver that de-fines four working states and eight state transitions as listedin Table 1.
Table 1: Radio working states and state transitionRadio working state State transition
Idle SLP
IdleSleeping (SLP) Idle
TxTransmitting (Tx) Idle
RxReceiving (Rx) Tx
RxIn order to calculate the energy consumed by the radio,the energy model tracks every radio state switch that is con-trolled in the Physical Layer (PHY) module using the no-tification board. Upon receiving state switch events fromthe notification board, the energy model updates the accu-mulated time for each radio working state and recalculates
 
the current energy consumption. If the measurements of radio transition energy are available for the specific radio,e.g. the measured transition energy of the Chipcon CC2420radio [6], the corresponding energy for current radio stateswitch needs to be further subtracted from the remainingbattery power. If the battery is completely exhausted af-ter the update, one of the above mentioned actions will beexecuted.
2.2.2 CPU or micro controller 
Estimating and modeling energy consumption on the CPUis more difficult compared to the radio transceiver becausethe activity of the CPU is complex and depends mainly onthe running application. For instance, the CPU will be busywhile processing a packet just received by the MAC or whileexecuting some encryption or decryption algorithms. It canalso be idle while the radio is busy transmitting or sleep-ing. Therefore, we consider only a rough approximation bydefining two CPU states, active and inactive, in our currentimplementation. We also assume that the CPU will fol-low the same sleeping schedule of the radio interface, whichmeans that CPU is inactive only during the radio sleepingperiod.
2.3 Model Calibration
Finally, the energy model needs to be calibrated to a spe-cific type of radio transceiver and micro controller. Obvi-ously, this step must be based on intensive measurementsof the hardware modules. An example for calibrating theenergy module in the IEEE 802.15.4 model is presented inSection 3. Furthermore, the degree of detail in the energymodel depends on the implemented functions of the protocolstack models and application specific information. For ex-ample, if security mechanisms have been implemented, theenergy model can be extended to calculate the CPU con-sumption for execution of security algorithms.We currently rely on three published energy measure-ments for sensor nodes (mainly Mica2 motes). Measurementdata is available for the energy consumption of two differ-ent radio transceivers: the Chipcon CC1000 (the main radiotransceiver used in the last generation of sensor nodes) [10]and the Chipcon CC2420 (the radio transceiver in forthcom-ing IEEE 802.15.4 based ZigBee networks) [6]. Furthermore,measurement results of energy consumption of the AtmelATMEGA micro controller for typical security algorithmsin sensor networks have been presented in [2].
3. ENERGYEVALUATIONOFIEEE802.15.4STAR NETWORKS
Based on our simulation model of the IEEE 802.15.4 pro-tocols in OMNeT++, we analyzed the (energy) performanceof an IEEE 802.15.4-based star network. The IEEE 802.15.4model including the energy model is described in [3,4]. Someselected simulation results for energy consumption are pre-sented in the following.
3.1 A Short Overview of IEEE 802.15.4 andSimulation Model in OMNeT++
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard [7] defines Medium AccessControl (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications forLow-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)that address the need for low-rate, low-power, and low-costwireless networking. The IEEE 802.15.4 PHY operates inone of three Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) fre-quency bands at a maximum data rate of 250kbps. Thestandard supports two network topologies, a star and a peer-to-peer topology.The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC utilizes a superframe structureto operate in the so called
beacon-enabled 
mode as shownin Figure 1. Each superframe is bounded by periodicallytransmitted beacon frames, which allow nodes to associatewith and synchronize to their coordinator. There are twoparts in the superframe, an active portion and an inactiveportion. Nodes may enter a low-power (sleep) mode duringthe inactive portion. Two MAC attributes, the
macBea-conOrder 
(BO) and the
macSuperframeOrder 
(SO), deter-mine the length of the beacon interval (BI) and the length of the active portion of the superframe (SD), respectively. Theactive portion of the superframe is further divided into threeparts: the beacon, the Contention Access Period (CAP),and the Contention-Free Period (CFP). In the CAP, allnodes contend for the channel using a slotted Carrier SenseMultiple Access With Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) al-gorithm. In the CFP, a Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) medium access scheme utilizing Guaranteed TimeSlots (GTS) provides guaranteed service for low-latency ap-plications.
Figure 1: Superframe structure of the MAC layerof IEEE 802.15.4
The implementation in OMNeT++ is outlined in Figure 2.It consists of a PHY and a MAC model plus several sup-porting models including an Interface Queue (IFQ) and ourenergy model. For the simulations presented in this paper,we calibrated the energy model based on the measurementsfor Mica2 motes contributed by Landsiedel et al. [10] andconsidered no radio transition energy. The deployed powerparameters for the radio and the CPU are listed in Table 2in the form of current draw. In our further ongoing workon evaluation of energy performance of IEEE 802.15.4 basedWSNs, we have adapted our energy model to the standardIEEE 802.15.4 radio CC2420 according to its hardware mea-surement results [6].
3.2 Simulation Scenarios and Results
In a first experiment, we analyzed energy consumption of a star network with one Personal Area Network (PAN) co-ordinator and 20 devices as shown in Figure 3. Each devicesends packets, which are generated with an exponentiallydistributed interarrival time, to the PAN coordinator. Thepacket interarrival mean is varied between 0
.
01s and 100s.We fixed SO at each node to 0, which results in a constantactive period of 0
.
015s. The BO is chosen at 1, 3, 5, and 7,which correspond to beacon intervals of 0
.
03s, 0
.
12s, 0
.
49s,and 1
.
97s, respectively.

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