Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Coverage-Time Optimization for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks a Power-Balancing Approach

Coverage-Time Optimization for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks a Power-Balancing Approach

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1|Likes:
Published by Usman M. Nooruddin

More info:

Published by: Usman M. Nooruddin on Dec 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/14/2014

pdf

text

original

 
202 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 18, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010
Coverage-Time Optimization for Clustered WirelessSensor Networks: A Power-Balancing Approach
Tao Shu and Marwan Krunz
 Abstract—
In this paper, we investigate the maximization of the
coverage time
for a clustered wireless sensor network by optimalbalancingofpowerconsumptionamongclusterheads(CHs).Clus-tering significantly reduces the energy consumption of individualsensors, but it also increases the communication burden on CHs.Toinvestigatethistradeoff, ouranalytical modelincorporatesboth
intra-
and
intercluster
traffic.Dependingonwhetherlocationinfor-mation is available or not, we consider optimization formulationsunder both deterministic and stochastic setups, using a Rayleighfading model for intercluster communications. For the determin-istic setup, sensor nodes and CHs are arbitrarily placed, but theirlocations are known. Each CH routes its traffic directly to the sinkor relays it through other CHs. We present a coverage-time-op-timal joint clustering/routing algorithm, in which the optimal clus-tering and routing parameters are computed using a linear pro-gram. For the stochastic setup, we consider a cone-like sensing re-gionwithuniformlydistributedsensorsandprovideoptimalpowerallocation strategies that guarantee (in a probabilistic sense) anupper bound on the end-to-end (inter-CH) path reliability. Twomechanisms are proposed for achieving balanced power consump-tion in the stochastic case: a routing-aware optimal cluster plan-ning and a clustering-aware optimal random relay. For the firstmechanism, the problem is formulated as a signomial optimiza-tion, which is efficiently solved using generalized geometric pro-gramming. For the second mechanism, we show that the problemis solvable in linear time. Numerical examples and simulations areused to validateouranalysis and study theperformance of thepro-posed schemes.
 Index Terms—
Clustering, coverage time, generalized geometricprogramming, linear programming, sensor networks, signomialoptimization, topology control.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
 A. Motivation
T
HE rapid transition to nanoscale ICs has led to the inte-gration of high-performance processors and high-speeddigitalwirelesscommunicationcircuits.Coupledwithadvancesin microelectromechanical systems, such integration has pavedthe way for the deployment of dense wireless sensor networks(WSNs). These networks are expected to play an important rolein a wide range of civilian and military applications, including
Manuscript received June 01, 2008; revised February 11, 2009; approved byIEEE/ACM T
RANSACTIONS ON
N
ETWORKING
Editor M. Liu. First publishedSeptember 09, 2009; current version published February 18, 2010. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under GrantsCNS-0721935, CNS-0627118, CNS-0325979, and CNS-0313234; Raytheon;and Connection One (an I/UCRC NSF/industry/university consortium). Thiswork was presented in part at the ACM MobiHoc 2005 Conference, Urbana-Champaign, IL, May 25–28, 2005.TheauthorsarewiththeDepartmentofElectricalandComputerEngineering,University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA (e-mail: tshu@ece.arizona.edu;krunz@ece.arizona.edu).Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TNET.2009.2022936
environment monitoring, seismic-structure analysis, marinemicroorganisms research, surveillance and reconnaissance, etc.[2]. For harsh, inaccessible deployment scenarios, sensors arenecessarily powered by energy-constrained, often nonrecharge-able batteries [17]. This makes energy consumption a criticalfactor in the design of a WSN and calls for energy-efficientcommunication protocols that maximize the lifetime of thenetwork.For a large WSN, sensors are often hierarchically organizedinto
clusters,
eachhavingitsown
clusterhead 
(CH)[17].Withina cluster, sensors transmit data to their CH, which in turn for-wards the data (or a fused version of it) to the
sink 
, either di-rectly or via a multihop path through other (intermediate) CHs.Such an architecture is adopted by recent standard specifica-tionsforsensornetworks(e.g.,the802.15.4standard[1]andtheZigBee Alliance specifications). It significantly reduces the bat-tery drainage of individual sensors, which only need to commu-nicate with their respective CHs over relatively short distances.It also has other advantages in terms of simplifying network management, improving security, and achieving better scala-bility. On the other hand, the clustering paradigm increases theburden on CHs, forcing them to deplete their batteries muchfaster than non-CH nodes. The additional energy consumptionis attributed to the need to aggregate
intracluster 
traffic into asingle stream that is transmitted by the CH and to relay
inter-cluster 
traffic of other CHs. Such relaying is sometimes desir-able because of its power-consumption advantage over direct(CH-to-sink) communication. Given the high density of sensorsin common deployment scenarios, the traffic volume comingfrom a CH can be orders of magnitude greater than the trafficvolume of an individual sensor. Even though the CH may beequippedwithamoredurablebatterythantheindividualsensorsitserves,thelargedifferenceinpowerconsumptionbetweenthetwo can lead to shorter lifetime for the CH. Once the CH dies,no communications can take place between the sensors in thatcluster until a new CH is selected.For clusters with comparable area coverage and node den-sity, the volume of intracluster traffic is roughly the same forall clusters. On the other hand, the traffic relayed by differentCHs is highly skewed; the closer a CH is to the sink, the moretrafficithastorelay,andthusthefasteritdrainsitsenergyreser-voir. Such an imbalanced power consumption situation is es-sentially caused by the many-to-one communication paradigmin WSNs, i.e., traffic from all sensors is eventually destined tothe sink (see Fig. 1). If we do not take measures to deliberatelybalance power consumption at different CHs, a “traffic implo-sion” situation will arise.More specifically, CHs that areclosestto the sink will exhaust their batteries first. Reassigning sen-sors to the next-closest CHs to the sink will simply increase the
1
www.zigbee.org.1063-6692/$26.00 © 2009 IEEE
AlultIXDoM1a1UfIX Ra
 
SHU AND KRUNZ: COVERAGE-TIME OPTIMIZATION FOR CLUSTERED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 203
Fig. 1. Traffic implosion in WSNs.
energy consumption of these CHs. As a result, they will even-tually be the second batch of CHs to run out of energy. Thisprocess continues to the next level of CHs, propagating frominside out and eventually leading to early loss of coverage andpartitioning of the topology. Our goal in this paper is to designoptimal power-allocation strategies that address this imbalanceby maximizing the
coverage time,
defined as the time until oneCH runs out of battery
2
These strategies deliberately offset theimpact of the skewed load by appropriately adjusting the trans-mission range (equivalently, transmission power, cluster size)of different CHs. Because the volume of relayed traffic is alsoaffected by the underlying routing scheme, a joint routing/clus-tering design methodology is needed to achieve power balanceamong CHs.
 B. Related Work 
Extensive research has been dedicated to the study of clus-teringalgorithmsforadhocandwirelesssensornetworks.Earlyclustering algorithms mainly focused on the connectivity issue(e.g., [5], [13], [14], [18], [19], [24], and [25]), aiming at gen-erating the minimum number of clusters that ensures network connectivity. In these algorithms, the election of the CH is donebased on node identity [5], [13], [19], connectivity degree [14],or connected dominating set [18], [24], [25].Recently, there has been increased interest in studying en-ergy-efficient clustering algorithms, in the context of both adhoc and sensor networks [3], [4], [6], [7], [9], [15],[16], [20]. In[16], the authors proposed the LEACH algorithm, in which theCH role is dynamically rotated among all sensors in the cluster.Energy is evenly drained from various sensors, leading to im-proved network lifetime. A similar CH-scheduling scheme wasproposed in [20] for a time-slotted WSN. In this scheme, sev-eral disjoint dominating sets are found and are activated succes-sively. Nodes that are not in the currently active dominating setare put to sleep. A distributed algorithm was proposed to obtainaset-schedulesequenceforwhichthenetworklifetimeiswithinalogarithmicfactorofthemaximumachievablelifetime.Ingen-eral, rotation-based schemes require excessive processing andcommunication overheads for CH reelection and broadcastingof the new CH information.“Load-balanced” algorithms (e.g., [3], [4], and [15]) focusmainly on balancing the intracluster traffic load and ignoreintercluster traffic. In [15], sensors are clustered according to
2
Other definitions for coverage time may also be used, such as the time until
of coverage is lost or the time until the network is partitioned. Such defini-tions will be considered in a future work.
“load-balancing” metrics, whereby the traffic volumes origi-nating from various clusters are equalized. The authors in [3]extended the work in [15] by integrating the concept of loadbalancing into traditional node-id/connectivity-degree basedclustering to produce a longer CH lifespan. In [4], the max-min-cluster algorithm was proposed to extend the traditionalone-hop cluster to a -hop cluster while generating load-bal-anced clusters. This extension achieves better load balancingusing fewer clusters.Distributed clustering algorithms were proposed in [6] and[7], with the objective of minimizing the energy spent in com-municating information to the sink. It should be noted that min-imizing the total energy consumption is not equivalent to max-imizing coverage time, as the former criterion does not guar-antee balanced power consumption at various CHs. By shiftingthe load from over-power-drained CHs to under-power-drainedCHs, coverage time can be maximized even though the totalpower consumption is not necessarily minimal.In [9], the authors proposed clustering algorithms that max-imize network lifetime by determining the optimal cluster sizeand optimal assignment of nodes to preselected CHs. Their ex-haustive-search approach assumes full knowledge of the net-work topology (i.e., the location of each sensor node and eachCH in the network). It also ignores intercluster traffic.The scheme in [21] incorporates the impact of interclustertraffic in determining the optimal location of the sink so as tomaximize the topological lifetime of the network. Power bal-ance among CHs was not considered. To the best of our knowl-edge, no previous work has adequately addressed power bal-ancing among CHs.
C. Main Contributions and Paper Organization
The main contributions of this paper are as follows. First, asan alternative to previous “load-balanced” algorithms, we studya “power-balanced” approach that aims at
directly
optimizingcoverage time by accounting for the interaction between clus-tering and routing, i.e., simultaneously taking into considera-tion the impacts of both intra- and intercluster traffic. Secondly,in contrast to previous algorithms, which are based on heuris-tics, ours is based on an analytical approach. Depending on theavailability of location information, we consider in our analysisboth deterministic and stochastic topology models. In the deter-ministic case, sensors and CHs are arbitrarily placed, but theirlocations are known. The traffic of a CH (which includes intr-acluster traffic plus relayed traffic from other CHs) is deliveredto the sink either directly or via other CHs. Using linear pro-gramming, we provide an algorithm for joint optimization of cluster sizes and the CH-to-CH routing matrix. More emphasisis then put on the stochastic case, where sensor locations arenot available beforehand. In this case, we consider a sensing re-gionwithuniformlydistributedsensornodes.Ouranalysisguar-antees an upper bound on the reliability of the multihop pathfrom the originating CH to the sink. Two schemes are proposedfor achieving power-balanced communications:
routing-awareoptimal cluster planning
and
clustering-aware optimal randomrelay
. The first scheme is essentially a clustering approach thatis developed in the context of shortest hop inter-CH routing.Forthis scheme, coverage-timemaximization is formulated asasignomial optimization problem that is efficiently solved using
AlultIXDoM1a1UfIX Ra

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->