Bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna
DIMITRIS J. PANAGOPOULOS, EVANGELIA D. CHAVDOULA, &LUKAS H. MARGARITIS
Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece(Received 10 June 2009; Revised 2 December 2009; Accepted 9 December 2009)
To examine the bioactivity of GSM 900 and 1800 (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) radiations, inrelation to the distance from the antenna or to the radiation-ﬁeld intensities.
Materials and methods: Drosophila melanogaster
adult insects were exposed to the radiation of a GSM 900/1800 mobilephone antenna at different distances ranging from 0 to 100 cm, and the effect on their reproductive capacity and cell deathinduction in the gonads by the use of TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, wasstudied.
These radiations/ﬁelds decreased the reproductive capacity by cell death induction, at all the different distancestested. The effect diminished with the distance/decreasing intensities. An increased bioactivity ‘window’ was revealed atdistances of 20–30 cm from the mobile phone antenna, (radiation intensity around 10
) where the effect becamehighest, in relation to smaller or longer distances. The effect diminished considerably for distances longer than 40–50 cmand became not evident for distances longer than 1 m or radiation intensities smaller than 1
GSM bioactivity is highest for intensities down to less than 10
and still evident until 1
exhibiting ‘window’ effects.
GSM, DCS, distances, intensity, cell death, electromagnetic ﬁelds, reproduction, bioactivity windows
A number of biological effects from digital mobiletelephony and radio frequency (RF)-microwaveradiations, including changes in intracellular ionicconcentrations, changes in the synthesis rate of different biomolecules, changes in cell proliferationrates, changes in the reproductive capacity of animals, changes in gene expression and evenDNA damage and cell death, have already beenreported and documented by many research groups(Bawin et al. 1975; 1978; Bawin and Adey 1976; Laiand Singh 1995, 1996, 1997; Magras and Xenos1997; Kwee and Raskmark 1998; Velizarov et al.1999; Salford et al. 2003; Xenos and Magras 2003;Panagopoulos et al. 2004, 2007a, 2007b; Aitkenet al. 2005; Barteri et al. 2005; Belyaev et al. 2005;2009; Caraglia et al. 2005; Diem et al. 2005;Markova et al. 2005; Nylund and Leszczynski2006; Remondini et al. 2006; Eberhardt et al.2008; Garaj-Vrhovac and Orescanin 2009; Lopez-Martin et al. 2009). At the same time, someepidemiological studies are starting to indicate aconnection between the use of cellular mobilephones and certain types of cancer (Kundi 2004;Hardell et al. 2006, 2007, 2009; Hardell andHansson Mild 2006; Hardell and Carlberg 2009;Khurana et al. 2009), as well as a connectionbetween exposure to radiation from base stationsand adverse health effects reported as ‘microwavesyndrome’ (Navarro et al. 2003; Hutter et al. 2006;Blettner et al. 2009; Kundi and Hutter 2009; Vielet al. 2009).Most of the experiments carried out in regards tothe bioactivity of mobile telephony radiation wereperformed either by use of commercial mobile phonedevices emitting real mobile telephony signals or by test mobile phones emitting idealized mobile tele-phony signals with constant and controllable para-meters. Until now there were no experiments
Correspondence: Dr Dimitris Panagopoulos, Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15784,Athens, Greece. Tel:
30210 7274117. Fax:
30210 7274742. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
, Vol. 86, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 345–357
ISSN 0955-3002 print/ISSN 1362-3095 online
2010 Informa UK Ltd.DOI: 10.3109/09553000903567961