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J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 6: Cayley Graphs

J. Gross- CS E6204 Lecture 6: Cayley Graphs

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CS E6204 Lecture 6Cayley Graphs
Abstract
There are frequent occasions for which graphs with a lot of sym-metry are required. One such family of graphs is constructed usinggroups. These graphs are called Cayley graphs and they are the sub- ject of this chapter. Cayley graphs generalize circulant graphs. Thereare variations in how different authors define Cayley graphs. This istypical of mathematical literature.
1. Construction and Recognition2. Prevalence3. Isomorphism4. Subgraphs5. Factorization6. Further Reading
Adapted from
§
6.2 of HBGT, by Brian Alspach, University of Regina, Canada.1
 
GENERATING SETS IN A GROUP
from Appendix A.4 of GTAIA
:A
group 
B
=
B,
·
comprises
a nonempty set
B
and
an associative binary operation
·
such that
B
has an identity element, and
each
g
G
has an inverse.A subset
B
is a
generating set 
of 
B
if every element of 
B
is obtainable as the product (or sum) of elements of 
.
Example 0.1
For the group
Z
n
, a nonempty set of integersmod
n
is a generating set iff its gcd is 1. This observation em-ploys this standard fact
:
The gcd of a set of positive integers equals the smallestpositive integer that can be formed by taking sums anddifferences of numbers in the set.For instance, the set
{
4
,
7
}
generates
Z
24
, since
gcd
(4
,
7) = 1but
{
6
,
9
}
does not generate
Z
24
, since
gcd
(6
,
9) = 3
2
 
0.1 Review of Cayley Graphs
Let
B
=
B,
·
be a group with generating set
. Then the
Cayley digraph 
 
(
B
,
) has as its vertex-set and arc-set, re-spectively,
 
(
B
,X 
)
=
B
and
 
(
B
,X 
)
=
{
x
b
|
x
X,b
B
}
Arc
x
b
joins vertex
b
to vertex
bx
. (Bidirected arcs are sometimesused for generators of order 2.)Let
B
=
B,
·
be a group with generating set
. The
Cayley graph 
(
B
,
) is the
underlying graph 
of the
Cayley digraph 
 
(
B
,
).
Example 0.2
Figure 1 shows the Cayley digraph for
5
withgenerating set
{
1
}
and the corresponding Cayley graph, whichis clearly isomorphic to the circulant graph
circ
(5 : 1).
1234
1
11
2
1
3
0
0
1
4
1
124
1
11
2
1
3
0
0
1
4
1
3
Figure 1:
The Cayley digraph
 
(
Z
5
,
{
1
}
) and the Cayley graph
(
Z
5
,
{
1
}
).
3

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