11/14/2011For Educational Use OnlyCedrick HARDMAN, and Tommy Mason, individually and..., 2011 WL 4842455...
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6. Defendant National Football League, which maintains its offices at 280 Park Avenue, New York, New York, is anunincorporated association consisting of the 32 separately-owned and independently-operated professional football teams thatare listed below. The National Football League is engaged in interstate commerce in the business of, among other things,operating the sole major professional football league in the United States. The National Football League is not, and has not, beenthe employer of the Plaintiffs, who were employed during their respective careers in professional football by the independentclubs indicated above. The United States Supreme Court held last year in
American Needle, Inc. v. NFL,
130 S.Ct. 2201, 2212-13(2010)that each team that is a member of the National Football League is a legally distinct and separate entity from both otherteams and the League itself:The NFL teams do not possess either the unitary decisionmaking quality or the single aggregation of economic powercharacteristic of independent action. Each of the teams is a substantial, independently owned, and independently managedbusiness. “[T]heir general corporate actions are guided or determined” by “separate corporate consciousnesses,” and “[t]heirobjectives are” not “common.” ... The teams compete with one another, not only on the playing field, but to attract fans, forgate receipts and for contracts with managerial and playing personnel.7. The 32 separately-owned and independently-operated professional football teams are:
NFL Team OwnerState of OrganizationTeam Name (City)
Arizona Cardinals, Inc.ArizonaArizona CardinalsAtlanta Falcons Football Club LLCGeorgiaAtlanta FalconsBaltimore Ravens Limited PartnershipMarylandBaltimore RavensBuffalo Bills, Inc.New YorkBuffalo BillsPanthers Football LLCNorth CarolinaCarolina PanthersChicago Bears Football Club, Inc.DelawareChicago BearsCincinnati Bengals, Inc.OhioCincinnati BengalsCleveland Browns LLCDelawareCleveland BrownsDallas Cowboys Football Club, Ltd.TexasDallas CowboysDenver Broncos Football ClubColoradoDenver BroncosDetroit Lions, Inc.MichiganDetroit LionsGreen Bay Packers, Inc.WisconsinGreen Bay PackersHouston NFL Holdings LPDelawareHouston TexansIndianapolis Colts, Inc.DelawareIndianapolis ColtsJacksonville Jaguars Ltd.FloridaJacksonville JaguarsKansas City Chiefs Football Club, Inc.TexasKansas City ChiefsMiami Dolphins, Ltd.FloridaMiami DolphinsMinnesota Vikings Football Club LLCMinnesotaMinnesota VikingsNew England Patriots, LPDelawareNew England PatriotsNew Orleans Louisiana Saints LLCTexasNew Orleans SaintsNew York Football Giants, Inc.New YorkNew York GiantsNew York Jets Football Club, Inc.DelawareNew York JetsOakland Raiders LPCaliforniaOakland RaidersPhiladelphia Eagles Football Club, Inc.DelawarePhiladelphia EaglesPittsburgh Steelers Sports, Inc.PennsylvaniaPittsburgh SteelersSan Diego Chargers Football Co.CaliforniaSan Diego ChargersSan Francisco Forty Niners Ltd.CaliforniaSan Francisco 49ers