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GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF M¨OBIUS LADDERSA WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT

YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

Abstract.

The genus distribution of the M¨obius ladder

ML

n

is re-derived here, using overlapmatrices and Chebyshev polynomials. This website document in intended as a supplementto [4].

1.

Some sets of overlap matrices for ladders

The genus distribution, as well as the total embedding distribution, of a graph can be calculatedfrom the rank distribution of its overlap matrices. We deﬁne for the M¨obius ladder

ML

n

+1

some sets of overlap matrices:(1)

M

n

+2

as the set of all matrices over

Z

2

of the form

M

c,x,y,X,Y,Zn

+2

;(2)

M

n

+2

(

z

) =

n

+2

j

=0

M

n

+2

(

j

)

z

j

as the

rank-distribution polynomial

of the set

M

n

+2

, thatis, of the overlap matrices for general rotation systems for the M¨obius ladder

ML

n

+1

;(3)

N

n

+2

as the set of all matrices of the form

M

c,x,y,

0

,Y,Zn

+2

; and(4)

N

n

+2

(

z

) =

n

+2

j

=0

N

n

+2

(

j

)

z

j

as the

rank-distribution polynomial

of the set

N

n

+2

, thatis, of the overlap matrices for pure rotation systems for the M¨obius ladder

ML

n

+1

.In a matrix of the form

M

c,x,y,X,Y,Zn

+2

as in display (1) of [4], suppose that we ﬁrst add the secondrow to the ﬁrst row and next add the second column to the ﬁrst column. Without changing therank of the matrix, these operations produce a matrix of the following form:(1)

M

c,x

+

z

1

,y

+

z

n

,X,Y,Zn

+2

=

x

e

c

+

x

f

x

+

z

1

0

···

0 0

y

+

z

n

c

+

x

f

x

f

z

1

z

2

···

z

n

−

2

z

n

−

1

yx

+

z

1

z

1

x

1

y

1

0

z

2

y

1

x

2

...

0

............0

z

n

−

2

0

y

n

−

2

0

z

n

−

1

0

y

n

−

2

x

n

−

1

y

n

−

1

y

+

z

n

y y

n

−

1

x

n

.

For

xy

∈ {

00

,

01

,

10

,

11

}

, we employ the notations(1)

M

xyn

+2

as the set of all matrices over

Z

2

of the form

M

c,x,y,X,Y,Zn

+2

;(2)

M

xyn

+2

(

z

) =

n

+2

j

=0

M

xyn

+2

(

j

)

z

j

as the

rank-distribution polynomial

of the set

M

xyn

+2

;

2000

Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation.

Primary: 05C10; Secondary: 30B70, 42C05.

Key words and phrases.

graph embedding; total embedding distribution; M¨obius ladders; overlap matrix;Chebyshev polynomials.

1

2 YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR

(3)

N

xyn

+2

as the set of all matrices of the form

M

c,x,y,

0

,Y,Zn

+2

; and(4)

N

xyn

+2

(

z

) =

n

+2

j

=0

N

xyn

+2

(

j

)

z

j

as the

rank-distribution polynomial

of the set

N

xyn

+2

.Clearly, we have the following property.

Property 1.1.

For all

n

≥

1

,

M

n

+2

(

z

) =

xy

=00

,

01

,

10

,

11

M

xyn

+2

(

z

)

and

N

n

+2

(

z

) =

xy

=00

,

01

,

10

,

11

N

xyn

+2

(

z

)

.

For the vectors

X

= (

x

0

,x

1

,...,x

n

),

Y

= (

y

1

,y

2

,...,y

n

−

1

), and

Z

= (

z

1

,z

2

,...,z

n

), with

x

i

,y

j

,z

k

∈

Z

2

, we deﬁne the matrices(2)

M

X,Y n

=

x

1

y

1

y

1

x

2

y

2

0

y

2

x

3

y

3

.........

0

y

n

−

2

x

n

−

1

y

n

−

1

y

n

−

1

x

n

and(3)

M

X,Y,Zn

+1

=

x

0

z

1

z

2

z

3

... z

n

−

1

z

n

z

1

x

1

y

1

z

2

y

1

x

2

y

2

0

z

3

y

2

x

3

............

y

n

−

2

z

n

−

1

0

y

n

−

2

x

n

−

1

y

n

−

1

z

n

y

n

−

1

x

n

.

As described by [1] and [3], every overlap matrix of the closed-end ladder

L

n

−

1

has the form

M

X,Y n

+1

, and every overlap matrix of the Ringel ladder

R

n

−

1

has the form

M

X,Y,Zn

+1

. (Note thatthe subscripts of

R

n

−

1

and

M

X,Y,Zn

+1

diﬀer by two.) Now we further deﬁne(1)

P

n

as the set of all matrices over

Z

2

of the form

M

0

,Y,Zn

;(2)

C

n

(

j

) as the number of overlap matrices for

R

n

that are of rank

j

;(3)

P

n

(

z

) =

n

+1

j

=0

C

n

(

j

)

z

j

as the

rank-distribution polynomial

of the set

R

n

; and(4)

O

n

(

z

) as the rank-distribution polynomial of the overlap matrices of the closed-endladder

L

n

−

1

over the set of matrices of the form

M

0

,Y n

.

Theorem 1.2.

(see

[2]

) The polynomial

O

n

(

z

)

satisﬁes the recurrence relation

O

n

(

z

) =

O

n

−

1

(

z

) + 2

z

2

O

n

−

2

(

z

)

with the initial conditions

O

1

(

z

) = 1

and

O

2

(

z

) =

z

2

+ 1

. Moreover, the generating function

O

(

t

;

z

) =

n

≥

1

O

n

(

z

)

t

n

is given by

O

(

t

;

z

) =

t

+

z

2

t

2

1

−

t

−

2

z

2

t

2

.

GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF M¨OBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT 3

Theorem 1.3.

[3]

Let

O

n

−

1

(

z

)

be the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder

L

n

−

2

. Then the polynomial

P

n

(

z

) (

n

≥

3)

satisﬁes the recurrence relation

P

n

+1

(

z

) =

P

n

(

z

) + 8

z

2

P

n

−

1

(

z

) + 2

n

−

1

z

2

O

n

−

1

(

z

)

.

(4)

with the initial conditions

P

2

(

z

) =

z

2

+ 1

,

P

3

(

z

) = 7

z

2

+ 1

, and

P

4

(

z

) = 12

z

4

+ 19

z

2

+ 1

.Moreover, the generating function

P

(

t

;

z

) =

n

≥

2

P

n

(

z

)

t

n

is given by

P

(

t

;

z

) =

t

2

(1 +

z

2

−

2(1

−

2

z

2

)

t

−

4

z

2

(4 +

z

2

)

t

2

−

32

z

4

t

3

)(1

−

2

t

−

8

z

2

t

2

)(1

−

t

−

8

z

2

t

2

)

.

2.

Rank-distribution polynomial for M¨obius ladders

Proposition 2.1.

[6]

For all

n

≥

3

,

P

En

(

z

) =12(

P

n

(

z

) + 1

−

z

2

)

.

Moreover, the generating function

P

E

(

t

;

z

) =

n

≥

3

P

En

(

z

)

t

n

is given by

t

3

(1 + 3

z

2

−

3(1

−

z

2

)(1 + 2

z

2

)

t

+ 2(1

−

10

z

2

−

13

z

4

)

t

2

+ 8

z

2

(3

−

2

z

2

−

4

z

4

)

t

3

+ 64

z

4

t

4

)(1

−

2

t

−

8

z

2

t

2

)(1

−

t

−

8

z

2

t

2

)(1

−

t

)

.

Lemma 2.2.

The polynomial

N

00

n

(

z

) (

n

≥

4)

equals

N

00

n

+2

(

z

) =

P

On

+1

(

z

) + 2

n

−

1

z

2

O

n

(

z

) =12(

P

n

+1

(

z

)

−

1 +

z

2

) + 2

n

−

1

z

2

O

n

(

z

)

.

(5)

where

O

n

−

1

(

z

)

is the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder

L

n

−

2

, and where

P

On

(

z

)

is the rank distribution polynomial over the set

M

O,Y,Z

odd

n

.Proof.

Note that this case must have

x

=

z

1

and

y

=

z

n

, so the matrix has the following form.

M

c,x

+

z

1

,y

+

z

n

,

0

,Y,Zn

+2

=

0

c

0 0

···

0 0 0

c

0

z

1

z

2

···

z

n

−

2

z

n

−

1

z

n

0

z

1

0

y

1

0

z

2

y

1

0...

0

............0

z

n

−

2

0

y

n

−

2

0

z

n

−

1

0

y

n

−

2

0

y

n

−

1

0

z

n

y

n

−

1

0

.

If

c

= 0, then it contributes

P

On

+1

(

z

) to

N

00

n

+2

(

z

). Otherwise

c

= 1, since there are 2

n

−

1

choicesof

z

1

,z

2

,

···

,z

n

such that the number of variables in

{

z

1

,z

2

,

···

,z

n

}

equals to 1 is even, itcontributes 2

n

−

1

z

2

O

n

(

z

) to

N

00

n

+2

(

z

). Note that

P

En

(

z

) +

P

On

(

z

) =

P

n

(

z

), and the rest followsimmediately by Proposition 2.1.