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Yichao Chen, Jonathan L. Gross and Toufik Mansour- Genus Distributions of Mobius Ladders: A Website Supplement

Yichao Chen, Jonathan L. Gross and Toufik Mansour- Genus Distributions of Mobius Ladders: A Website Supplement

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GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF M¨OBIUS LADDERSA WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT
YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR
Abstract.
The genus distribution of the M¨obius ladder
ML
n
is re-derived here, using overlapmatrices and Chebyshev polynomials. This website document in intended as a supplementto [4].
1.
Some sets of overlap matrices for ladders
The genus distribution, as well as the total embedding distribution, of a graph can be calculatedfrom the rank distribution of its overlap matrices. We define for the obius ladder
ML
n
+1
some sets of overlap matrices:(1)
M
n
+2
as the set of all matrices over
Z
2
of the form
c,x,y,X,Y,Zn
+2
;(2)
M
n
+2
(
z
) =
n
+2
j
=0
n
+2
(
 j
)
z
j
as the
rank-distribution polynomial 
of the set
M
n
+2
, thatis, of the overlap matrices for general rotation systems for the M¨obius ladder
ML
n
+1
;(3)
n
+2
as the set of all matrices of the form
c,x,y,
0
,Y,Zn
+2
; and(4)
n
+2
(
z
) =
n
+2
j
=0
n
+2
(
 j
)
z
j
as the
rank-distribution polynomial 
of the set
n
+2
, thatis, of the overlap matrices for pure rotation systems for the M¨obius ladder
ML
n
+1
.In a matrix of the form
c,x,y,X,Y,Zn
+2
as in display (1) of [4], suppose that we first add the secondrow to the first row and next add the second column to the first column. Without changing therank of the matrix, these operations produce a matrix of the following form:(1)
c,x
+
z
1
,y
+
z
n
,X,Y,Zn
+2
=
x
e
c
+
x
x
+
z
1
0
···
0 0
y
+
z
n
c
+
x
x
z
1
z
2
···
z
n
2
z
n
1
yx
+
z
1
z
1
x
1
y
1
0
z
2
y
1
x
2
...
0
............0
z
n
2
0
y
n
2
0
z
n
1
0
y
n
2
x
n
1
y
n
1
y
+
z
n
y y
n
1
x
n
.
For
xy
∈ {
00
,
01
,
10
,
11
}
, we employ the notations(1)
M
xyn
+2
as the set of all matrices over
Z
2
of the form
c,x,y,X,Y,Zn
+2
;(2)
M
xyn
+2
(
z
) =
n
+2
j
=0
xyn
+2
(
 j
)
z
j
as the
rank-distribution polynomial 
of the set
M
xyn
+2
;
2000
Mathematics Subject Classification.
Primary: 05C10; Secondary: 30B70, 42C05.
Key words and phrases.
graph embedding; total embedding distribution; obius ladders; overlap matrix;Chebyshev polynomials.
1
 
2 YICHAO CHEN, JONATHAN L. GROSS, AND TOUFIK MANSOUR
(3)
xyn
+2
as the set of all matrices of the form
c,x,y,
0
,Y,Zn
+2
; and(4)
xyn
+2
(
z
) =
n
+2
j
=0
xyn
+2
(
 j
)
z
j
as the
rank-distribution polynomial 
of the set
xyn
+2
.Clearly, we have the following property.
Property 1.1.
For all 
n
1
,
M
n
+2
(
z
) =
xy
=00
,
01
,
10
,
11
M
xyn
+2
(
z
)
and 
n
+2
(
z
) =
xy
=00
,
01
,
10
,
11
xyn
+2
(
z
)
.
For the vectors
= (
x
0
,x
1
,...,x
n
),
= (
y
1
,y
2
,...,y
n
1
), and
= (
z
1
,z
2
,...,z
n
), with
x
i
,y
j
,z
k
Z
2
, we define the matrices(2)
X,Y n
=
x
1
y
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
0
y
2
x
3
y
3
.........
0
y
n
2
x
n
1
y
n
1
y
n
1
x
n
and(3)
X,Y,Zn
+1
=
x
0
z
1
z
2
z
3
... z
n
1
z
n
z
1
x
1
y
1
z
2
y
1
x
2
y
2
0
z
3
y
2
x
3
............
y
n
2
z
n
1
0
y
n
2
x
n
1
y
n
1
z
n
y
n
1
x
n
.
As described by [1] and [3], every overlap matrix of the closed-end ladder
L
n
1
has the form
X,Y n
+1
, and every overlap matrix of the Ringel ladder
R
n
1
has the form
X,Y,Zn
+1
. (Note thatthe subscripts of 
R
n
1
and
X,Y,Zn
+1
differ by two.) Now we further define(1)
P
n
as the set of all matrices over
Z
2
of the form
0
,Y,Zn
;(2)
n
(
 j
) as the number of overlap matrices for
R
n
that are of rank
j
;(3)
P
n
(
z
) =
n
+1
j
=0
n
(
 j
)
z
j
as the
rank-distribution polynomial 
of the set
R
n
; and(4)
O
n
(
z
) as the rank-distribution polynomial of the overlap matrices of the closed-endladder
L
n
1
over the set of matrices of the form
0
,Y n
.
Theorem 1.2.
(see
[2]
) The polynomial 
O
n
(
z
)
satisfies the recurrence relation 
O
n
(
z
) =
O
n
1
(
z
) + 2
z
2
O
n
2
(
z
)
with the initial conditions
O
1
(
z
) = 1
and 
O
2
(
z
) =
z
2
+ 1
. Moreover, the generating function 
O
(
t
;
z
) =
n
1
O
n
(
z
)
t
n
is given by 
O
(
t
;
z
) =
t
+
z
2
t
2
1
t
2
z
2
t
2
.
 
GENUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF M¨OBIUS LADDERS A WEBSITE SUPPLEMENT 3
Theorem 1.3.
[3]
Let 
O
n
1
(
z
)
be the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder 
L
n
2
. Then the polynomial 
P
n
(
z
) (
n
3)
satisfies the recurrence relation 
P
n
+1
(
z
) =
P
n
(
z
) + 8
z
2
P
n
1
(
z
) + 2
n
1
z
2
O
n
1
(
z
)
.
(4)
with the initial conditions
P
2
(
z
) =
z
2
+ 1
,
P
3
(
z
) = 7
z
2
+ 1
, and 
P
4
(
z
) = 12
z
4
+ 19
z
2
+ 1
.Moreover, the generating function 
P
(
t
;
z
) =
n
2
P
n
(
z
)
t
n
is given by 
P
(
t
;
z
) =
t
2
(1 +
z
2
2(1
2
z
2
)
t
4
z
2
(4 +
z
2
)
t
2
32
z
4
t
3
)(1
2
t
8
z
2
t
2
)(1
t
8
z
2
t
2
)
.
2.
Rank-distribution polynomial for M¨obius ladders
Proposition 2.1.
[6]
For all 
n
3
,
P
En
(
z
) =12(
P
n
(
z
) + 1
z
2
)
.
Moreover, the generating function 
P
E
(
t
;
z
) =
n
3
P
En
(
z
)
t
n
is given by 
t
3
(1 + 3
z
2
3(1
z
2
)(1 + 2
z
2
)
t
+ 2(1
10
z
2
13
z
4
)
t
2
+ 8
z
2
(3
2
z
2
4
z
4
)
t
3
+ 64
z
4
t
4
)(1
2
t
8
z
2
t
2
)(1
t
8
z
2
t
2
)(1
t
)
.
Lemma 2.2.
The polynomial 
00
n
(
z
) (
n
4)
equals
00
n
+2
(
z
) =
P
On
+1
(
z
) + 2
n
1
z
2
O
n
(
z
) =12(
P
n
+1
(
z
)
1 +
z
2
) + 2
n
1
z
2
O
n
(
z
)
.
(5)
where
O
n
1
(
z
)
is the rank-distribution polynomial of the closed-end ladder 
L
n
2
, and where
P
On
(
z
)
is the rank distribution polynomial over the set 
O,Y,Z
odd
n
.Proof.
Note that this case must have
x
=
z
1
and
y
=
z
n
, so the matrix has the following form.
c,x
+
z
1
,y
+
z
n
,
0
,Y,Zn
+2
=
0
c
0 0
···
0 0 0
c
0
z
1
z
2
···
z
n
2
z
n
1
z
n
0
z
1
0
y
1
0
z
2
y
1
0...
0
............0
z
n
2
0
y
n
2
0
z
n
1
0
y
n
2
0
y
n
1
0
z
n
y
n
1
0
.
If 
c
= 0, then it contributes
P
On
+1
(
z
) to
00
n
+2
(
z
). Otherwise
c
= 1, since there are 2
n
1
choicesof 
z
1
,z
2
,
···
,z
n
such that the number of variables in
{
z
1
,z
2
,
···
,z
n
}
equals to 1 is even, itcontributes 2
n
1
z
2
O
n
(
z
) to
00
n
+2
(
z
). Note that
P
En
(
z
) +
P
On
(
z
) =
P
n
(
z
), and the rest followsimmediately by Proposition 2.1.

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