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05479987

05479987

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State Space Modeling and Eigenvalue Analysis of the Permanent Magnet DC MotorDrive System
Ghazanfar Shahgholian
Department of Electrical Engineering Islamic AzadUniversity, Najaf Abad BranchEsfahan, Iranshahgholian@iaun.ac.ir
Pegah Shafaghi
Department of Electrical Engineering Islamic AzadUniversity, Najaf Abad BranchEsfahan, Iranp_shafaghi@iaun.ac.ir
 Abstract
— In this paper the state space model is available forthe permanent magnet (PM) direct current (DC) motor drive.The simulation results using the motor model shows thetransient response for different applied voltage and loadtorques. Also, motor behavior for different parameters of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using eigenv-alue is studied.
 Keywords-permanent magnet dc motor; state space model; control; coefficient diagram method.
I.I
NTRODUCTION
In recent years, permanent magnet (PM) motors are usedin wide variety of applications in following market segment-s where simplicity of structure, high efficiency and a low in-itial cost are primary importance. The PM motor drives areattractive for high speed operations when variable-speed isrequired. They can be designed in different forms and exhi-bit high efficiency in a wide range of operation [1-2]. Thedc motor offers a wide range of control of speed and torqueas well as excellent acceleration and deceleration. The useof PM in place of field windings offers the advantages of lower manufacturing costs, simple construction, lower start-ing torque, less air noise and higher efficiency. The materialused to constant a PM dc motor may be one of three types:ferrite magnets, alnico magnets or rare earth magnets. Highperformance DC motor drives employ PM motors andrequire precise complex position-speed reference trajectorytracking, with fast response, small steady state error, smallovershoot (or undershoot), fast rise time and minimumsettling time [3]. Control of electric drives is one of themain topics in modern electronics. In [4] the problem isstudied speed control of a PMDC motor with unknownparameters and unknown external load torque usingadaptive control. A second order sliding mode controltechnique for PMDC motor speed control is present in [5].The effects of armature reaction and saturation in the constr-ucted prototype and design concepts for the mitigation of th-ese effects present in [6]. In [7], a steady state reference cu-rrent determination technique based on a neural network forthe PM brushless DC motor drive system for improve sys-tem response speed, and reduce overshoot and oscillation isproposed. A fuzzy logic control for permanent magnet DCmotor to achieve a robust controller under disturbances andun-modeled dynamics acting, such as load torque, dead zo-ne, measurement noise and nonlinearities is presented in [8].This paper is organized as follows. In section II, themodel of the PMDC motor is presented in continuous time.The dynamic behavior of the motor using transfer function isdescribed in section III. Section IV explains the structure andthe design process of controller by coefficient diagrammethod (CDM). The simulation results are shown in sectionV. Finally, results and conclusion are in section VI.II.S
YAYTEM
M
ODEL AND
C
ONTROLLER
In this section describes the dynamics of the PMDCmotors by a set state-variable equation. Mathematical mode-ls are of fundamental importance in understanding any phy-sical system. A dynamic model for a PMDC motor isderived from both the electrical circuit and mechanical equ-ations of motion. The equations describing the characteristi-cs of a PMDC motor is follow as:)t(U L1)t(LK)t(i LR)t(i dtd
TAMATAAAA
+ω=
(1))t(T J1)t(JB)t(i JK)t(dtd
LMMMMAMTM
ω=ω
(2))t()t( dtd
MM
ω=θ
(3)where
θ
M
is angular position,
ω
M
is rotor speed, i
A
is motorcurrent, B
M
is viscous friction constant, J
M
is inertia of rotor,T
L
is load torque, R
A
is armature resistance, L
A
is armatureinductance, K
T
is back electromotive force (emf) constant ortorque constant and U
T
is applied voltage to motor. InPMDC motor, the electromagnetic torque (T
E
) and the back-emf (u
b
) are proportional to motor current and speed motor,respectively. The back electromotive force (K
T
) determinedby the strength of magnet, reluctance of iron and number of turns of armature winding. The stator magnetic flux remainsessentially constant at all levels of armature current, therefo-re the torque-speed curve of the PMDC motor is linear.Transfer function of the motor is important to design theproper controller that will results improve the high perform-
63978-1-4244-7406-6/10/$26.00c
2010 IEEE
 
ance of the system. An armature controlled PMDC motor asshown in Fig.1 is modeled to use in simulations of thisstudy.
Figure 1. Model of armature controlled dc motor
Fig.2 show the open loop block diagram of the motor-load combination base on (1)-(3) by transfer block, whichhas two inputs. The rotor speed is:)s(T)s(H)s(U)s(H)s(
LTTUM
=ω
(4)where two closed-loop transfer functions are:
AMTO0)s(T TMU
RBK)s(1)s(U )s()s(H
L
Δ=ω=
=
(5)
MMO0)s(U LMT
B1sT)s(1)s(T )s()s(H
T
+Δ=ω=
=
(6)The characteristic equation of the system open-loop,mechanical time constant (T
M
) and electrical time constant(T
A
) of the motor are:1s)TT(sTT)s(
AM2AMO
+++=Δ
(7)
MMM
BJT
=
(8)
AAA
RLT
=
(9)PMDC motor can be found in systems where motor speedcontrol below base speed only is required and is achieved byarmature voltage control through electronic methods. One of the most useful control algorithms in linear and nonlinearcontrol systems is PID control [9]. The PID controller iswidely used in the industry owing to its simplicity and robu-stness, a functional block diagram of proposed speed controlis shown in Fig.3. The motor speed is compared the referen-ce speed (
ω
R
) to form the error speed. The transfer functionof the PID controller is:sKsKK)s(G
PIPC
++=
(10)where K
P
, K
I
and K
D
are proportional gain, integral gain andderivative gain, respectively. The motor speed in the closed-loop system as shown Fig. 2 is:)s()s(G)s(H[ )s(G)s(H1 1)s(
RCUCTM
ω+=ω
)]s(T)s(H
LT
(11)III.D
YNAMIC
A
NALYSIS
Linearized models are useful for control system usinglinear analysis techniques such as frequency response androot locus. Analytical model is important tools for theprediction of dynamic performance and stability limits withdifferent control laws and system parameters. One of themost important characteristics of the transient response of asystem is the stability of the system.
Figure 2. Open loop block diagram of PMDC motor driveFigure 3. Functional scheme for the speed control system
64
2010 2nd International Conference on Electronic Computer Technology (ICECT 2010)
 
The location of the poles in the s-plane is good indicatorsof the relative stability and transient response of the closed-loop control system. The eigenvalue of the Linearizedmodel correspond to the poles of the system. The motorspeed in the closed-loop system is:)s(T)s(G)s()s(G)s(
LLRRM
ω=ω
(12)The PMDC motor dynamic performance is described bythe two closed-loop transfer functions: one is relating
ω
M
with
ω
R
and another relating
ω
M
with T
L
(s):)s()KsKsK(K )s()s()s(G
CIP2DT0)s( LTRMR
Δ++=ωω=
=
(13))s(R)1sT(s )s(T )s()s(G
CAM0)s( RLML
Δ+=ω=
=ω
(14)The characteristic equation of the system close-loop is:
AAMAMM 3AMAMC
RTBRTB(sTTRB)s(
++=Δ
ITPTAM 2DT
KKs)KKRB(s)KK
++++
(15)The motor parameters are used for simulation studiesshown in Table 1. The step response of the
Electromagnetictorque
and motor speed in open loop system are shown inFigs. 4 and 5. The frequency response of the motor current inopen loop system is show in Fig. 6. The effects of changesin the control gain can be evaluated from the root locusshown in Figs. 7 and 8.
TABLE IP
ARAMETERS
V
ARIOUS
M
OTORS
 
parameter motor A motor B motor C unit
B
M
4.32
×
10
-4
1
×
10
-5
3
×
10
-3
N.m.s/rL
A
8.05 5.35 162.73 mHR
A
1.4 3.2 7.72
Ω
K
T
0.095 0.3 1.25 NmJ
M
7.49
×
10
-4
5
×
10
-4
2.36
×
10
-2
kg.m
2
T
A
5.7500 1.6719 21.0790mH/ 
Ω
T
M
1.7330 50 7.8667 Kg.m.r/N/sFigure 4. Electromagnetic torque step responseFigure 5. Motor speed step responseFigure 6. Motor speed step responseFigure 7. The root locus for the parameter K
I
Figure 8. The root locus for the parameter K
P
2010 2nd International Conference on Electronic Computer Technology (ICECT 2010)
65

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