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3.laporan_furuncle

3.laporan_furuncle

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Published by Nita Andriyani

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Published by: Nita Andriyani on Dec 31, 2011
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01/15/2013

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9                             
BAGIAN ITINJAUAN PUSTAKA
1.Adhesi Sel1.1.Molekul Sel Adhesi
Beberapa mekanisme yang terjadi dalam pelekatan sal dalam suatu jaringan, di bantu dengan molekul adhesive dalam jumlah yang banyak.Molekul adhesive tersebar dalam membrane plasma. Protein yang ada dalampembentukan jaringan dapat di klasifikasikan menjadi molekul sel adhesiatau molekul sel junction.Molekul sel adhesi terbagi menjadi Ca2+- dependent dan Ca2+-independent. Ca2+ dependent terbagi menjadi cadherin dan selektin.Cadherin merupakan protein single-pass transmembran yang dapatpenstabil kadar ion ca 2+ pada daerah extrasellular. Pada sel yangberdekatan cadherin akan mengikat cadherin lagi yang ada pada membraneplasma suatu sel yang berdekatan. Jenis pengikatan seperti ini adalahhomophilic binding protein. Sedangkan Selectin berperan penting dalampergerakan sel darah putih untuk dapat keluar dari pembuluh darah dandapat menuju ke daerah yang terjadi peradangan, Pada tempat peradangansel endotel akan dirangsang untuk dapat memproduksi selektin, selektinpada darah putih akan mempunyai afinitas tinggi terhadap selektin yang adapada sel endotel dan akan terjadi pengikatan sementara pada permukannsel endotel, Lalu setelah keluar dari pembuluh darah selektin akan berperandalam reseptor signal yang akan menunjukan sel darah putih pada tempatperadangan. Pada selektin, jenis pengikatanya berupa heterophilic bindingproteinMolekul sel adhesi ada juga yang berupa ca 2+-independent yaitu N-CAM (neural cel adhesion molecule) dan ICAM (immunoglobulin cell adhesionmolecul). Ncam akan ada perlekatan sel neural dan glial yang akanmembentuk system syaraf pada saat perkembangan embryogenesis,Sedangkan ICAM yaitu suatu perlekatan yang menandakan suatu responpertahanan diri. Contonya ketika terjadi peradangan, integrin pada sel darahputih dan yang ada pada permukann endotel akan membentuk suatuadhesive molekul yang sangat kuat.
1.2.Cell Junction
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9                             
Menurut Fungsinya, cell junction dibagi tiga :
1.2.1.
 
Occluding Junction / Tight Junction
o
Membentuk segel rapat (impermeabel) antara sel-sel untuk mencegahperpindahan ion dan air.
o
 Terdapat pada epitel intestinal yang mencegah berpindahnya sari-sarimakanan ke luar saluran. Membran yang berdekatan berfusi, daerahyang berfusi disebut
tight junction
atau
zonula occiudens
o
 Transmembran protein pada tight junction menggunakan interaksihomofilik antara domain ekstraceluler ketika interaksi Zo dengandomain interseluler dan protein lain. Oleh karena itu, pertahanan tight junction tergantung pada Ca.
Gambar
: Tight Junction
1.2.2.
 
Anchoring Junction
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   9                             
Anchoring Junction atau penghubung jangkar dimaksudkan untukmenghindari pemisahan antarsel ketika terjadi kontraksi. Anchoring Junctiondibagi berdasarkan elemen sitoskeleton.a.Elemen sitoskeleton berupa aktin atau mikrofilamen.
o
Adheren junction
Hubungan sel yang satu dengan sel yang lain dengan transmembranglikoprotein yaitu chaderin sebagai penghubungkan sel satu dengansel yang lain. Transmembran protein melekat pada mikrofilamen aktinvia vinculin, alpha-actinin, catenin, dan plakoglobin. Membentukseperti sabuk yang disebut
adhesion belt
atau
zonula adherens.
Contohnya terjadi pada mekanisme morfologis neural tube selamaembriogenesis pada vertebrata.
o
Adheren Junction antara sel dengan basa lamina pada matriks disebut
focal contact
atau
adhesion plaque
. Transmembran linkerglikoproteinnya adlah fibronectin reseptpr, dan penghubungmikrofilamen dengan transmembran glikoproteinnya adalah vinculin,talin, dan alpha actinin. Terdapat integrin pada transmembranproteinnya. Focal contact membantu pergerakan seluler, contohnyapada leukosit yang bergerak mendekati agen kemotaksis selamarespon imun.

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