Two Treatises on Government
Two Treatises on Government
was written in 1689 by John Locke, though it waspublished anonymously. In the
, Locke criticizes Sir Robert Filmer’s
, which supports the divinity of kings and states that you are born either aking, or a slave to one. Locke disagreed with Filmer’s theory because he believed inself-government according to God’s law. The
outlines a model of civil society, including man’s rights and respects to nature, trade, slavery, etc. Thiswork greatly influenced the U.S. Constitution, which was drafted nearly one-hundredyears later.
In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh organized an all-male voyage to settle Roanoke Island,off the coast of North Carolina. The first group of explorers abandoned the colonyand sailed back to England with Sir Francis Drake when he stopped by on his wayback from the West Indies. In 1587, Raleigh sent one-hundred-fifteen colonists,including women and children, back to Roanoke to attempt to settle again, this timewith a governor by the name of John White. Shortly after landing, White returned toEngland to collect food and supplies for the colonists. When he returned in 1590, hefound a ghost town. The colonists, along with all the houses and communitybuildings they had built, had vanished. The only clue left behind was the word“Croatoan” carved on a post. Through Roanoke’s failure, England knew that adifferent approach was imperative to secure a settlement stronghold in the NewWorld.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union while attending the AlbanyCongress in 1754. The Albany Congress consisted of twenty-four delegates fromseven colonies, as well as Indians from the Iroquois Confederacy in central New York. The Albany Congress’ primary purpose was to discuss ways to repair traderelations with the Mohawk Indians. Franklin, along with Thomas Hutchinson, draftedthe Albany Plan. Its purpose was to unite the colonies and strengthen the defensefor the New World during the French and Indian War. However, all thirteen coloniesand Great Britain rejected it because they felt it was an attempt on the part of theBritish government to control the colonists. Up until the plan was unveiled, thecolonies had governed themselves, and they intended to keep it that way. Thoughnever put into action, the Albany Plan laid the groundwork for the Articles of Confederation, which were ratified in 1781.
In 1613, John Rolfe brought West Indian tobacco seeds over to the colony in Virginia.He found that the seeds grew very well in tobacco soil, and out of his experimentcame the first successful cultivation of an export crop in the colony. In 1614, hemarried famous Pocahontas. In 1617, there was enough tobacco to send a