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American History Identifications

American History Identifications

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Published by Amanda
For my U.S. History exam, I had to write paragraphs summarizing the events, literary works, or people listed in this file and memorize them.
For my U.S. History exam, I had to write paragraphs summarizing the events, literary works, or people listed in this file and memorize them.

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Published by: Amanda on Nov 02, 2008
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Two Treatises on Government
Two Treatises on Government 
was written in 1689 by John Locke, though it waspublished anonymously. In the
First Treatise
, Locke criticizes Sir Robert Filmer’s
Patriarcha
, which supports the divinity of kings and states that you are born either aking, or a slave to one. Locke disagreed with Filmer’s theory because he believed inself-government according to God’s law. The
Second Treatise
outlines a model of civil society, including man’s rights and respects to nature, trade, slavery, etc. Thiswork greatly influenced the U.S. Constitution, which was drafted nearly one-hundredyears later.
Roanoke Colony
In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh organized an all-male voyage to settle Roanoke Island,off the coast of North Carolina. The first group of explorers abandoned the colonyand sailed back to England with Sir Francis Drake when he stopped by on his wayback from the West Indies. In 1587, Raleigh sent one-hundred-fifteen colonists,including women and children, back to Roanoke to attempt to settle again, this timewith a governor by the name of John White. Shortly after landing, White returned toEngland to collect food and supplies for the colonists. When he returned in 1590, hefound a ghost town. The colonists, along with all the houses and communitybuildings they had built, had vanished. The only clue left behind was the word“Croatoan” carved on a post. Through Roanoke’s failure, England knew that adifferent approach was imperative to secure a settlement stronghold in the NewWorld.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union while attending the AlbanyCongress in 1754. The Albany Congress consisted of twenty-four delegates fromseven colonies, as well as Indians from the Iroquois Confederacy in central New York. The Albany Congress’ primary purpose was to discuss ways to repair traderelations with the Mohawk Indians. Franklin, along with Thomas Hutchinson, draftedthe Albany Plan. Its purpose was to unite the colonies and strengthen the defensefor the New World during the French and Indian War. However, all thirteen coloniesand Great Britain rejected it because they felt it was an attempt on the part of theBritish government to control the colonists. Up until the plan was unveiled, thecolonies had governed themselves, and they intended to keep it that way. Thoughnever put into action, the Albany Plan laid the groundwork for the Articles of Confederation, which were ratified in 1781.
 John Rolfe
In 1613, John Rolfe brought West Indian tobacco seeds over to the colony in Virginia.He found that the seeds grew very well in tobacco soil, and out of his experimentcame the first successful cultivation of an export crop in the colony. In 1614, hemarried famous Pocahontas. In 1617, there was enough tobacco to send a
 
commercial shipment back to England, where it was sold for a good profit. Throughone man’s experiment, the colony at Virginia secured its first source of income.
Battles of Quebec (1759) and Montreal (1760)
Leading up to these battles, the colonist had few victories in the French andIndian war. William pitt is hired by England to help the war effort. Though arrogant,Pitt is a military genius. His theory on the war was to stop attacking the French inEurope and focus Britain’s efforts in North America. His plan was to sail down the St.Lawrence River and capture the French forts and block the French’s supplies fromcoming in. 1759 is known as the
 Annus Mirabilis
(year of a miracle.) In 1759, theBritish, lead by General James Wolfe, lay siege to the fort of Quebec for 3 months.Finally the French, lead by Louis-Joseph Marquis de Montcalm, charged at theBritish. The battle lasted only a few hours. Both generals were mortally wounded.Britain won the battle and captured the fort.After the victory at Quebec, BritishGeneral Jeffrey Amherst had the plan to converge 3 British armies on Montreal.Marquis de Vaudreuil gave the order to Francois Gaston de Levis to surrender thecity. These two battles marked the end of French Rule in North America.
Proclamation of 1763
After the French and Indian War, the French were out of North America exceptfor a few fishing rights. The colonists then moved their focus to expansion. Then,George III passed the Proclamation of 1763, which stated that the colonists couldnot travel west past the Appalachian Mountains. After the French and Indian War,the Indians became more and more on edge about the colonists taking over theirland. Britain also knew that the new land was mostly uncharted and they did notwant anything disastrous to happen. This act fueled the colonist’s suspicion thatBritain sought complete control over the colonies. The colonists only saw this as aviolation of the God given right to property.
Common Sense
Common Sense was published anonymously by Thomas Paine in January of 1776. This book was by far the most popular book written in the colonies. It soldmore than 100,000 copies in the first 3 months of being published. The book waswritten on a common person’s level and stressed the need for the colonists to beindependent from Britain. This pamphlet placed all of the colonists’ struggles andproblems squarely on George III ‘s shoulders.
Common Sense
remains one of themost influential pamphlets ever written in the English language. Some people saythat this writing sparked the revolution.
Boston Tea Party
 
In 1763, when the French and Indian War ended, George III and the Britishgovernment sought taxing the colonies as a way of regaining some of the war costs. The Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767 increased the colonists’suspicion towards the mother country, but it was the Tea Act of 1773 that broke theproverbial camel’s back. The East India Company was not doing well and the Britishlooked to help it succeed by passing the Tea Act, which essentially placed amonopoly on tea sales to the East India Company. There was eight million pounds of unsold tea, so the EIC sold it much lower than the individual tea suppliers evercould. The colonists saw this as “taxation without representation” because to them,it meant that they could not buy tea from anyone else without paying a muchhigher price. In protest of the high prices, the colonists refused to unload theinexpensive tea. Much of it was left to rot on the docks. As a final act of rebelliontoward the Tea Act, American colonists, possibly the Sons of Liberty, dressed up asIndians and boarded three British ships. They proceeded to dump 342 whole cratesof tea into Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773.
Stamp Act
 The Stamp Act of November 1765 was the first direct tax on the colonists. It statedthat every printed document had to have a British seal on it, and each stamp costmoney. The colonists were outraged and formed the Stamp Act Congress, whosesole purpose of meeting was to discuss how to respond to the new tax. Theydecided to write up a document called the
Declaration
 
of Rights and Grievances
. This document stated that the colonists had the same amount of rights as thepeople still living in Britain, and that the colonists had a right to protest “taxationwithout representation.” The colonists made themselves heard, and the Stamp Actwas repealed in March of 1766, much to the British government’s dismay.
George Whitefield
George Whitefield, an Anglican preacher and evangelist, was born in Gloucester,England in 1714. Growing up, he was not religious, but converted after readingHenry Scougal’s
The Life of God in the Soul of Man
while in college
.
He discovered alove of preaching and was ordained by the Bishop of Gloucester in 1736, and soonafter, he set sail for America. He was especially fond of open-air preaching, andconverted many while behind the pulpit. Once, a murderer had been scheduled tobe hanged, but had committed suicide. A crowd of illiterate miners that felt“robbed” of their amusement had dug up his corpse and rallied around it. Whitefieldwalked through the crowd and began quoting Matthew chapter five, which says,“Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” The miners,astounded at Whitefield’s love for them, began to repent. Whitefield wrote that ashe walked amongst them, he saw “the white gutters made by their tears down theirblack cheeks."George Whitefield was a major contributor in the Great Awakening,

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